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February 2016
In This Issue

Nanostructured Metal Coatings Let the Light Through for Electrical Devices

From the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, December 8, 2015, by Liz Ahlberg: 
"Light and electricity dance a complicated tango in devices like LEDs, solar cells and sensors. A new anti-reflection coating developed by engineers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Massachusetts at Lowell, lets light through without hampering the flow of electricity, a step that could increase efficiency in such devices.

The coating is a specially engraved, nanostructured thin film that allows more light through than a flat surface, yet also provides electrical access to the underlying material - a crucial combination for optoelectronics, devices that convert electricity to light or vice versa. The array of nanopillars etched by thin layer of grate-patterned metal creates a nonreflective yet conductive surface that could improve electronic device performance."

Source: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign,
Image: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign / Daniel Wasserman

On-the-Go Ultrahigh Vacuum Storage Systems

From American Institute of Physics on Phys.Org, December 8, 2015: 
"The train to Tsukuba, Japan often carries workers with briefcases and travelers with overnight bags, but recently a group of scientists took an unusual bit of luggage on board: a suitcase with an ultrahigh vacuum chamber to store air-sensitive clusters of platinum metal.

Researchers from Toyota Central R&D Labs, Hokkaido University, and AVC Co. collaborated to develop an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) storage system. As they report in AVS' Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, their "suitcase under UHV conditions" makes it much easier to carry and transport samples from one scientific facility to another via public transportation. Samples are protected from vibration during transport inside the "special travel suitcase" and outfitted with vacuum conditions within the sample chamber guaranteed to last at least 72 hours, during which time an ion pump is powered by battery."

Source: American Institute of Physics on Phys.Org,
Image: Fuji City

Nanoscale Drawbridges Open Path to Color Displays

From Rice University, December 4, 2015, by Jade Boyd: 
"A new method for building "drawbridges" between metal nanoparticles may allow electronics makers to build full-color displays using light-scattering nanoparticles that are similar to the gold materials that medieval artisans used to create red stained-glass. The research at Rice University's Smalley-Curl Institute could allow engineers to use standard electrical switching techniques to construct color displays from pairs of nanoparticles that scatter different colors of light.

Rice's new drawbridge method for color switching incorporates metal nanoparticles that absorb light energy and convert it into plasmons, waves of electrons that flow like a fluid across a particle's surface. Each plasmon scatters and absorbs a characteristic frequency of light and even minor changes in the plasmonic wave causes a shift in frequency. The greater the change in plasmonic frequency, the greater the difference between the colors observed."

Source: Rice University,
Image: Rice University / H. Zhang

Making Colorful Buildings that Convert Solar Light into Energy

From Business Wire, December 2, 2015:

"Researchers have developed a new solar-light-absorbing surface that can have almost any design, pattern, and color - useful for turning building facades and roofs into energy-capturing exteriors without sacrificing aesthetics. Since they also use similar materials as existing solar absorbers, this new kind of solar absorber could lead to wider use of solar thermal technology and more energy efficiency, said Shao-Wei Wang, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, China.

The new absorber is covered with multiple layers of transparent dielectric materials, which can reflect light of a particular color. By changing the thickness of these layers, the researchers can tune the absorber to reflect light of almost any shade required. Some parts of the absorbing layer can be covered with a thicker transparent dielectric layer than other parts, allowing the researchers to create a single absorber with a rainbow of hues. And, it works almost as well as the best conventional ones."


Source: Business Wire, 
Image: Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, China

Biometamaterials: Inspiration from the Surface of Leaves

From Tokyo Institute of Technology, November 11, 2015:  
"Metamaterials are man-made substances whose properties are determined by their meticulously-designed structure. For example, metamaterials can be fabricated so that they interact with light or sound in a specific way. Unique surface structures play a vital role in metamaterials, and scientists have begun looking to nature itself for patterned surfaces from which to draw inspiration.

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology have created an ultrathin, light-absorbing 'biometamaterial' using gold sputtered onto a lotus leaf. The natural nano-scale structures on the surface of the leaves created a material with very low reflectivity, which absorbs almost all light on the visible spectrum."

Source: Tokyo Institute of Technology,  
Image: Tokyo Institute of Technology

Flexible, Low-Power, High-Frequency Nanoelectronics with Monolayer MoS2

From Nanowerk, January 6, 2016 by Michael Berger:

"The semiconducting material molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) exhibits unique physical, optical and electrical properties correlated with its single-layer atomic layer structure. Important for electronics applications, and in contrast to graphene, MoS2 has a bandgap. In the past, the performance of synthesized MoS2 had been poor, especially when integrated on flexible substrates. A team from The University of Texas at Austin has demonstrated for the first time highly flexible and robust CVD deposited monolayer MoS2-based radio frequency (RF) transistors operating in the GHz range."

Source: Nanowerk, 
Image: The University of Texas at Austin / Jo Wozniak, Deji Akinwande

Metallic Glue for Ambient Environments Making Strides

From Advanced Materials and Processes, January 2016 by Stephen Stagon, et al: 
"Metallic glues feature the combined advantages of the ambient condition of gluing and the superior properties of the joint from high-temperature soldering (or welding and brazing). These glues can serve as excellent conductors for heat dissipation and electrical current in electronic devices and also a leak-resistant seals for vacuum environments. The potential market for these applications is extensive and growing rapidly.

Advancements in nanoscience are making it possible to metallically glue two solids together at room temperature, in air, and under a small amount of mechanical pressure.

Researchers have developed a new process that uses nanostructures and eutectic alloys to produce a room temperature metallic glue with the desirable properties of solder. Interdiffusion between the liquid alloy and the nanorod cores leads to solidification as the composition deviates from that of eutectic alloys of low melting temperature. One important subject of the investigation in nanoscience has been nanrod growth using glancing angle physical vapor deposition."

Source: Advanced Materials and Processes, Volume 174, No. 1, January 2016: (Page 22)
Image: Advanced Materials and Processes Volume 174, No. 1, January 2016: (Page 23)

Plasma Treatments to Assist Fluid Manipulation in Microgravity
From NASA Tech Briefs, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, January 1, 2016: 

"A recent innovation has made manipulation of hazardous laboratory reagents in microgravity easier, thus enabling even more scientific research to be performed on the International Space Station (ISS). Prior to this innovation, moving fluids from container to container was performed only under conditions of redundant and physically separate layers of containment. This design paradigm restricts access to - and direct manipulation of - fluids in microgravity conditions.

By exposing the internal surfaces of containers with a localized low-pressure (vacuum) plasma treatment, it is possible to significantly increase (make more hydrophilic) or decrease (make more hydrophobic) the surface energy of the material. Experiments were carried out using a variety of process gases, plasma exposure times, and other process variables that dramatically increased the surface energy within the bottom section of the fluid containment vessels. By leaving the top sections of the containers untreated by the plasma field, fluids were held within the container by the naturally low surface energy of the polymer material."


Source: NASA Tech Briefs,
Image: NASA Johnson Space Center

Indium-Free Perovskite TCOs Could Save Costs

From Semiconductor Manufacturing and Design, January 4, 2016, by Ed Korczynski, Sr.: 

"Researchers at Pennsylvania State University-with collaborators from Rutgers University and University of Toledo-have found two new families of transparent conductive oxides (TCO) based on "correlated" electrons in ternary oxides of vanadium. From reported first principles, the researchers are confident they will find many other correlated materials that behave like strontium vanadate (SrVO3) and calcium vanadate (CaVO3), which could make flat panel displays and photovoltaic (PV) modules more affordable.

Correlated oxides are defined as metals in which the electrons flow like a liquid, unlike conventional metals such as copper and gold in which electrons flow like a gas. Researchers are trying to make metals transparent by changing the effective mass of their electrons."


Source: Semiconductor Manufacturing and Design, 
Image: Nature Materials 

Seventh Row of the Periodic Table is Now Complete

From Chemical and Engineering News, January 11, 2016, by Jyllian Kemsley:  
"With the addition of four new elements, the seventh row of the periodic table is officially full, the International Union of Pure & Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) announced on Dec. 30. A joint committee made up of IUPAC and the International Union of Pure & Applied Physics gave its stamp of approval, and IUPAC temporarily gave element 113 the name ununtrium (Uut), 115 the name ununpentium (Uup), 117 the name ununseptium (Uus), and 118 the name ununoctium (Uuo).

What fascinates researchers about superheavy elements in the seventh row and beyond is their potential chemistry. As the number of protons in an atomic nucleus increases, electrons speed up and generate relativistic effects that alter orbital energy levels. That could mean that group reactivity trends don't hold as elements get heavier."

Source: Chemical and Engineering News, 
Image: Chemical and Engineering News
Watch the Video: 

3D "Nanobridges" Formed Using Electron Beam Writing with Tiny Jets of Liquid Precursor

From Georgia Institute of Technology, December 18, 2015 by John Toon:

"Researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology have demonstrated a new process for rapidly fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures from a variety of materials, including metals. The new technique uses nanoelectrospray to provide a continuous supply of liquid precursor, which can include metal ions that are converted to high-purity metal by a focused electron beam.

The new process generates structures that would be impossible to make using gas-phase focused electron beam-induced deposition (FEBID) techniques, and allows fabrication at rates up to five orders of magnitude faster than the gas-phase technique. And because it uses standard liquid solvents, the new process could take advantage of a broad range of precursor materials. Multiple materials can also be deposited simultaneously."


Source: Georgia Institute of Technology, 
Image: Georgia Institute of Technology / Jeffrey Fisher

Scientists Create Atomically Thin Metallic Boron

From Northwestern University, McCormick School of Engineering, December 17, 2015 by Megan Fellman:  

"A team of scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory, Northwestern University and Stony Brook University has, for the first time, created a two-dimensional sheet of boron -- a material known as borophene.

Borophene is an unusual material because it shows many metallic properties at the nanoscale even though three-dimensional, or bulk, boron is nonmetallic and semiconducting. Because borophene is both metallic and atomically thin, it holds promise for possible applications ranging from electronics to photovoltaics. No bulk form of elemental boron has this metal-like behavior."


Source: Northwestern University, 
Image: Northwestern University / Andrew Mannix

Metal-Oxide Interfaces Create a Flipping Point

From RIKEN (Japan), December 11, 2015: 
"By manipulating the way in which electrons scatter through a silver nanowire, RIKEN researchers have potentially found a method to generate pure spin currents for next-generation magnetic memory devices.

Spintronic technology requires ways to harness electrons' quantum spin states- a property that makes electrons behave like tiny bar magnets with either 'up' or 'down' orientations. To help achieve this goal the quantum nanomagnetism research team at the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science are developing 'lateral spin valves'- spintronic devices that decouple a pure spin current from a conventional electrical current.

Researchers found that the interface between silver (Ag) nanowires and bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) efficiently 'flips' the spin state of an electron. Utilizing such spin relaxation process may help establish better convertor between spin and charge current."

Source: RIKEN, 
Image: RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science / Shutaro Karube / Kaiheng Wei

Research Sheds Light on Sensor Material Behavior in Harsh Environments

From DOE Pulse, December 14, 2015: 

"DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory-(NETL) is developing optical gas sensors, capable of operating in harsh environments, which can be used to monitor and control critical processes in a variety of energy systems including coal gasification, solid oxide fuel cells, gas turbines, and oxy-fuel combustion.

Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)-a technique used to examine the surface chemistry of a solid material-NETL researchers have begun to understand the operating principles and sensing mechanisms behind promising nanocomposite thin film materials.

NETL researchers gained insight into the sensing mechanism associated with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanocomposite films containing noble metal nanoparticles. Gold-containing YSZ thin films demonstrated a sensing mechanism involving the transfer of electrons back and forth between the gold nanoparticles and YSZ in response to experimental variables, including high temperatures and exposure to oxidizing and reducing gases.


Source: DOE Pulse, 
Image: DOE Pulse

Diagnostics with Birefringence

From ETH Zurich (Switzerland), December 11, 2015 by Peter Regg: 

"ETH (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) researchers have developed a new diagnostic method. It is based on Birefringence, the ability of substances to change the polarization state of light. With this method, doctors around the world can easily, rapidly and reliably detect malaria, Ebola or HIV to name only a few.

The scientists use the phenomenon of birefringence of polarized light from the lipid based lyotropic liquid crystals, which consist of self-assembled structures of fat molecules in water. Lyotropic liquid crystals organize themselves into special networks with unique symmetry, which means that their basic motif repeats itself periodically.

If a slide with a layer of lipotropic liquid crystal films is placed under a light source that allows polarized light to pass through, it appears black when observed through another polarizer tilted at 90. To achieve birefringence and thus receive a signal, the researchers reached again into their bag of tricks: they added certain enzymes to the liquid crystal to allow a chemical reaction to take place in the nanotubes. This birefringence pattern is the only signal that we need to use for diagnostics and analysis."


Source: ETH Zurich, 
Image: ETH Zurich/ Jijo Vallooran

Fab Equipment Spending: Look for Upward Swing into 2016

From SEMI, December 8, 2015: 

"Worldwide semiconductor fab equipment capital expenditure growth (new and used) for 2015 is expected to be 0.5 percent (total capex of US$35.8 billion), increasing another 2.6 percent (to a total of $36.7 billion) in 2016, according to the latest update of the quarterly SEMI World Fab Forecast report.

SEMI reports that in 2015, Korea outspent all other countries ($9.0 billion) on front-end semiconductor fab equipment, and is expected to drop to second place in 2016 as Taiwan takes over with the largest capex spending at $8.3 billion. In 2015, Americas ranked third in overall regional capex spending with about $5.6 billion and is forecast to increase only slightly to (5.1 percent) in 2016."


Source: SEMI, 
Image: SEMI

Stokes-Shift-Engineered Nanocrystals for Next-Generation Luminescent Solar Concentrators

From SPIE Newsroom, DOI: 10.1117/2.1201511.006226, December 9, 2015, by Francesco Meinardi, et al: 

"Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) were first proposed more than 30 years ago as cost-effective light collectors to supplement silicon (Si)-based photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. They consist of a semitransparent glass or plastic waveguide doped or coated with highly emissive chromophores, which upon absorption of sunlight re-emit photons at longer wavelengths. Total internal reflection guides the luminescence to the waveguide edges, where it is converted into electricity by PV cells installed along the slab perimeter. Thanks to the ease with which they can be integrated into architecture-for example, in solar windows-LSCs are considered one of the most promising strategies for the realization of buildings with net-zero energy consumption.

However, the integration of LSCs into real-world applications has so far been hindered by the intrinsic limitations of the organic molecules and conventional quantum dots (QDs) commonly used as emitters. In particular, large reabsorption losses and a limited coverage of the solar spectrum have prevented the realization of large-area devices with sufficiently high efficiency."


Source: SPIE Newsroom, 
Image: SPIE Newsroom

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Partner2016 SVC TechCon
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The following publications and organizations are playing an important role promoting the 2016 SVC TechCon within and outside the Vacuum Coating Community.


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Physics Today
Physics Today is the flagship publication of the American Institute of Physics (AIP), and has been published for more than 65 years. If you are currently a member of an AIP member society, your benefits package includes a non-deductible subscription to Physics Today.

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AIMCAL, the Association of International Metallizers, Coaters and Laminators, is an international nonprofit trade association representing converters of metallized, coated, and laminated flexible substrates and their suppliers. 

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SPIE Photonics West 2015
SPIE Photonics West
February 13-18, 2016
The Moscone Center
San Francisco, CA 

SPIE Photonics West, the #1 laser, photonics, and biomedical optics conference: 20,000 attendees, two exhibitions with more than 1,250 exhibiting companies, 70 special events, 4,800 papers in the areas of biomedical optics, optoelectronics, industrial lasers, nanophotonics, MOEMS-MEMs, and more.

One Week. A Variety of Events.
BiOS Hot Topics * Translational Research * LASE * OPTO * Green Photonics * 3D Printing * BiOS, LASE, OPTO Plenary sessions * Courses * BiOS Expo * Photonics West Exhibition * Industry Events * and More.

NCCAVS 37th Annual Equipment Exhibition
February 24, 2016
Holiday Inn San Jose Airport
1350 N. First Street | San Jose, California

The NCCAVS sponsors an Annual Equipment Exhibition to showcase products and services of companies supporting vacuum-related industries. Attracting approximately 100+ exhibitors and ~700 attendees, the NCCAVS Annual Equipment Exhibition is the largest sponsored by any AVS Chapter.

Held In Conjunction with:
  • 5th Annual Student Poster Session
  • NCCAVS Symposium / Joint User Group Meeting 
    "Materials, Devices, and Systems for Intelligent Engineering Solutions"

2016Flex Conference 2016FLEX
February 29 - March 3, 2016
Monterey Marriott
Monterey, CA, USA 

Spend several productive days seeing and hearing the latest breakthroughs and developments in Flexible, Printed and Hybrid Electronics. Join other electronics professionals as they gather to explore bringing technology and products successfully to market through presentations, courses, exhibits and networking.

Passes are available for any combination of days, courses or events. Pick and choose items that work for your schedule and interests, while leaving plenty of time to meet with new customers and vendors also at the event. 

Don't miss the best technical event in the industry - guaranteed to advance your technical and business interests in flexible, printed, hybrid electronics and their applications.

AIMCAL Logo AIMCAL Web Coating and Handling Conference
May 30 - June 2, 2016
Dresden, Germany

The AIMCAL Web Coating and Handling Conference brings together the converting community to advance the technologies of web processing, handling and finishing. Organized and hosted by the Association of International Metallizers, Coaters and Laminators (AIMCAL) the conference convenes leading industry professionals to improve efficiencies, reduce waste and introduce new technologies designed to improve competitiveness. The conference brings the state of the art to the plant floor, addressing the problems and opportunities that are part of every manufacturing process. AIMCAL is partnering with the Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging IVV (Fraunhofer IVV), Freising, Germany, and the Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP (Fraunhofer FEP), Dresden, Germany, to present the event.

ICCG11 2016

The International Conference on Coatings on Glass and Plastics ICCG11 
June 12-16, 2016 
Conference Center, Braunschweig, Germany

With an excellent scientific program, several social events, plenty of exhibitors, and a historically remarkable venue, the ICCG11 offers a unique platform to discuss the latest trends and the implementation of new technologies or products into the field of coatings on glass and plastics. The focus of the conference is to bring together science and industry to discuss the latest trends in the field of coatings on glass and plastics. Besides universities and research institutes, the conference addresses coating manufacturers, material and equipment suppliers, and user industries.

The application of coatings is an area which has become extremely important for large-area or high-volume
products. The topics will cover all of the required steps and techniques to control the coating process, to characterize, and to finish the coated product. Finally, the 11th ICCG provides information on the different technologies at a general level for new product designers, as well as technical aspects, safety measures, and environmental and economic factors.

Abstract Submission Deadline: December 15, 2015
Early Bird Registration Deadline: March 4, 2016

Learn More:


Seventh International Conference on Fundamentals and Industrial Applications of HIPIMS 2016
June 27-30, 2016
Cutler's Hall
Sheffield, United Kingdom

HIPIMS 2016 will provide a forum for presenting the latest research by scientists and engineers from industry, engineering institutes and academia. Contributions will cover fundamental scientific aspects as well as application-oriented research and development. In addition, successful introduction to market of new products utilizing HIPIMS will be addressed:

HIPIMS 2016 will focus on the following topics:
  • Generation of HIPIMS and highly ionized plasmas
  • Plasma diagnostics and discharge physics
  • Coating characterization and performance
  • Reactive and non-reactive HIPIMS processes
  • Simulation of HIPIMS processes
  • HIPIMS systems and hardware
Featuring SVC Tutorial Courses:
Monday, June 27
C-323: High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering
Prof. Arutiun P. Ehiasarian, Sheffield Hallam University and Dr. Andre Anders, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Tuesday, June 28 - half-day morning
C-338: Application of Reactive Sputtering
Dr. Ralf Bandorf, Fraunhofer IST

Tuesday, June 28 - half-day afternoon
C-333: HIPIMS Applications
Dr. Ralf Bandorf, Fraunhofer IST and Prof. Arutiun P. Ehiasarian, Sheffield Hallam University

Conference Deadlines:
Abstract submission: Feb 26, 2016
Acceptance Notification: March 25, 2016

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