Like us on Facebook  Follow us on Twitter  View our profile on LinkedIn   Society of Vacuum CoatersApril 2015
In This Issue
  
 
From Nanowerk News,
January 12, 2015:


"Silicene is the thinnest form of silicon. It is metallic, has graphene-like mobile carriers and can behave like a semiconductor. The wonder material could lead to even smaller electronics but challenges remain in this review published in the Science and Technology of Advanced Materials ("Progress in the materials science of silicene").

Graphene is a one-atom-thick layer of carbon that has been shown to host the fastest carriers of electricity yet found. Compared with silicon, however, graphene is not a semi-conductor because it can't switch between conducting and not conducting states. This makes it very difficult to apply it in a switching device such as a transistor. "

 


Source: Nanowerk News
Image Source: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials  


Holst Centre and Flex-o-Fab Take the First Step Towards "Lighting by the Mile"

From Flex-o-Fab (Eindhoven, The Netherlands), January 15, 2015: doi.org/10.1016/j.eml.2014.12.001), December 3, 2014, by Yang Mu et.al.: 
 

"Researchers from the EU-funded Flex-o-Fab project have successfully fabricated working OLED devices on a flexible barrier layer produced in a roll-to-roll (R2R) process. Produced on a PET plastic film, this breakthrough is a significant first step towards taking flexible OLEDs 'from lab to fab' and hence to commercial production. It draws on technical developments achieved within both Flex-o-Fab and Holst Centre's joint research program into high-performance flexible barriers for organic electronics. 


 

By performing in-situ planarization of the film immediately before depositing the barrier, Holst Centre researchers have been able to deliver R2R barriers that perform similar to barriers produced in sheet-to-sheet (S2S) processes, thereby enabling potential cost savings in volume production. "We have successfully produced over 2.5 kilometers of R2R barrier film based on a single inorganic layer with water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) lower than 10-5 g/m2 per day on commercial-grade PET foil," said Sandeep Unnikrishnan, Roll-to-Roll Barrier project leader at Holst Centre."

Image Source: Flex-o-Fab


 


Improving the Reliability of Dry Vacuum Pumps in High-k ALD Processes

From Solid State Technology, January 2015, by Mike Boger, Edwards Vacuum, Tokyo, Japan:

"The use of high-k dielectric films deposited through atomic layer deposition, primarily in batch furnaces, has intensified, particularly in the manufacture of memory devices and high-k metal gates (HKMG) in logic devices. ALD uses a sequential purge and injection of the precursor gases to generate slow, but accurate growth of the films one atomic layer at a time. One of the precursors is typically a metal-organic compound from a liquid source, commonly zirconium or hafnium-containing materials, followed by ozone to create the high-k film.

Wafers are usually processed in furnace with batch sizes of 200 or more wafers. Reliability of the vacuum system is imperative to prevent contamination and consequent scrapping of the wafers. Unexpected failures can cause significant loss of work in process and process downtime. "


Source: Solid State Technology, p. 30
Image Source: Solid State Technology


Extreme-Temperature Electronics

From Journal of Applied Physics, February 10, 2015, by Zhengzheng Zhang: 
 

"Many industries are calling for electronics that can operate reliably in a harsh environment, including extreme temperatures above 200 Celsius. Examples of the high temperature applications include turbine engine control in aerospace and electronics or sensors used for drilling operation in oil and gas industry. Although traditional cooling systems can help electronics function at high temperatures, in some applications, cooling may not be possible-or it may be more appealing for the electronics to operate hot to improve system reliability or reduce cost. However, the availability of transistors and circuits for high temperature operation is very limited.

Now a team of researchers from the University of California, Riverside and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute discovered that molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a semiconductor material, may be a promising candidate to make thin-film transistors for extreme temperature applications. In a paper published in the Journal of Applied Physics, from AIP Publishing, the researchers report the fabrication of molybdenum disulfide thin-film transistors and their functional performance at high temperatures, demonstrating the material's potential for extreme-temperature electronics. "
 


Image Source: University of California-Riverside/Alexander A. Balandin

Chemical Modifications Convert Textiles to
Multifunctional Materials


From Chemical and Engineering News, February 9, 2015, by Mitch Jacoby:
 

 "Materials specialists are boosting the performance of woven materials by altering them with novel substances. Through subtle chemical modifications of natural and synthetic fibers, researchers are making high-tech fabrics and textiles endowed with enhanced physical and chemical properties. These materials, which combine attributes such as low weight, high strength, electrical conductivity, and chemical selectivity, may lead to modern armor and personal protective gear with advance functionality.

Scientists know that silk outperforms many other strong materials in terms of its ability stretch and its tensile strength, the pulling force required to break it. In particular, spider silk is one of the strongest silks. A few years ago, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, in Halle, Germany, developed a method for infiltrating the protein structures of spider silk fibers with metal atoms. The team shows that incorporating zinc, titanium, or aluminum into the proteins greatly increases silk's toughness. The researchers noted that the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method they devised to beef up the fibers could be used to enhance the strength and toughness of other biomaterials. "
 


Source: Chemical and Engineering News
cen.acs.org/magazine/

Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials for Camouflage and Stealth Applications 


From Nanowerk Spotlight, January 30, 2015 by S.R. Vadera and Narendra Kumar, Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur, India:
 

"This article briefly describes how nanomaterials and nanotechnology can be useful in the strategic area of camouflage and stealth technology. The threat perception is one of the most important parameters, which decides the requirement of camouflage measures that need to be taken. The section on threat perception briefly describes various sensors and platforms from where those sensors can be operated for the purpose of surveillance, detection and identification of military objects. This paper also describes those nanomaterials with the greatest potential for future stealth applications. " 


Source: Nanowerk Spotlight
nanowerk.com/spotlight/
Image Source: 
Wikimedia Commons

Accurate Optical Coating Characterization Must Include Both Transmission and Reflectivity Measurements

 

 

 

From Photonics Online, January 5, 2015, by Acton Optics & Coatings:
 
"Deep-ultraviolet (DUV) industrial and medical laser systems operating at 193 nm rely on high-performance multilayer-dielectric (MLD) coated optics to deliver optimum performance and lifetimes exceeding millions, and in some cases billions, of pulses. Accurate characterization of these coatings is key to obtaining optimal system performance, lifetime, and reliability, but the process is often misunderstood. To achieve peak optical performance, it is imperative to measure both transmission and reflection of the coated optics in order to evaluate the amount of inherent loss within the coating. A measurement of transmission alone can help to determine the center wavelength and relative bandwidth of a coating, but it will not indicate the amount of absorption that could lead to premature failure and unnecessary system downtime in the field.

Since MLD coatings produce relatively narrow reflecting bands in the DUV, it is also important to measure the coated optics at the laser wavelength and the angle of incidence at which the optics will be used. "

 

Source: Photonics Online
click.news.photonicsonline.com/
Image Source: Wikimedia Commons (from CILAS)

New Technology Keeps Bacteria From Sticking to Surfaces
 

From Cornell University, January 9, 2015 by Krishna Ramanujan:
 
"Just as the invention of nonstick pans was a boon for chefs, a new type of nanoscale surface that bacteria can't stick to holds promise for applications in the food processing, medical and even shipping industries.

The technology, developed collaboratively by researchers from Cornell University and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, uses an electrochemical process called anodization to create nanoscale pores that change the electrical charge and surface energy of a metal surface, which in turn exerts a repulsive force on bacterial cells and prevents attachment and biofilm formation. These pores can be as small as 15 nanometers; a sheet of paper is about 100,000 nanometers thick. "


Source: Cornell University
Image Source: Cornell University/ Guoping Feng

Laser-Generated Surface Structures Create Extremely Water-Repellent Metals

From University of Rochester, January 20, 2015, by Leonor Sierra: 
 

"Scientists at the University of Rochester have used lasers to transform metals into extremely water repellent, or super-hydrophobic, materials without the need for temporary coatings.

Super-hydrophobic materials are desirable for a number of applications such as rust prevention, anti-icing, or even in sanitation uses. However, as Rochester's Chunlei Guo explains, most current hydrophobic materials rely on chemical coatings.

In a paper published in the Journal of Applied Physics, Guo and his colleague at the University's Institute of Optics, Anatoliy Vorobyev, describe a powerful and precise laser-patterning technique that creates an intricate pattern of micro- and nanoscale structures to give the metals their new properties. This work builds on earlier research by the team in which they used a similar laser-patterning technique that turned metals black. Guo states that using this technique they can create multifunctional surfaces that are not only super-hydrophobic but also highly-absorbent optically. "


Image Source:  University of Rochester/Adam Fenster


Providing a Clearer Picture of Nanotechnology's Full Potential


From CORDIS, January 12, 2015: 

 

"A new tool capable of carrying out simultaneous nano-sized measurements could soon lead to more innovative nanotech-based products and help boost the EU economy. Indeed the tool, developed by scientists cooperating through the EU-funded UNIVSEM project, has the potential to revolutionize research and development in a number of sectors, ranging from electronics and energy to biomedicine and consumer products.

Up until now however, nanotech R&D has been hampered by the fact that it has not been possible to achieve simultaneous information on 3D structure, chemical composition and surface properties.

This is what makes the UNIVSEM project, due for completion in March 2015, so innovative. By integrating different sensors capable of measuring these different aspects of nano-sized materials, EU scientists have created a single instrument that enables researchers to work much more efficiently. By providing clearer visual and other sensory information, the tool will help scientists to manipulate nano-sized particles with greater ease and help cut R&D costs for industry.
"
 

Source: CORDIS
 cordis.europa.eu/news/rcn/
Image Source: UNIVSEM
Art9

Water, Water, Everywhere - Controlling the Properties of Nanomaterials

From Oak Ridge National Laboratory, January 12, 2015, by Wendy Hames and Katie Bethea:  
 

"Scientists at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory are learning how the properties of water molecules on the surface of metal oxides can be used to better control these minerals and use them to make products such as more efficient semiconductors for organic light emitting diodes and solar cells, safer vehicle glass in fog and frost, and more environmentally friendly chemical sensors for industrial applications.

The behavior of water at the surface of a mineral is determined largely by the ordered array of atoms in that area, called the interfacial region. However, when the particles of the mineral or of any crystalline solid are nanometer-sized, interfacial water can alter the crystalline structure of the particles, control interactions between particles that cause them to aggregate, or strongly encapsulate the particles, which allow them to persist for long periods in the environment. As water is an abundant component of our atmosphere, it is usually present on nanoparticle surfaces exposed to air.
"


Source: Oak Ridge National Laboratory
ornl.gov/ornl/news/features/2015/
Image Source: Oak Ridge National Laboratory/Jason Richards

Electronic Contact Lenses May Replace Reading Glasses

From SPIE Newsroom, (DOI: 10.1117/2.1201501.005746), January 19, 2015, by Harry Milton, et al:

"A leading problem facing modern optometry is correcting presbyopia, the reduction of near-visual acuity arising from the natural deterioration of the eyes' accommodation mechanism. It affects everyone over age 45. This deterioration is thought to arise from a reduction in the crystalline lens' flexibility that renders the aging eye unable to provide the additional focal power for near-vision tasks. The most common form of correction for presbyopia is wearing a pair of reading glasses for near-vision tasks. Contact lens correction of presbyopia is more problematic due to the fundamental restrictions caused by various forms of optical compromise associated with simultaneous vision devices. This results in reduced vision quality and user satisfaction. "

Source: SPIE Newsroom

spie.org/

Image Source: SPIE Newsroom

Winding Borders May Enhance Graphene

From Rice University, February 2, 2015, by Mike Williams: 

"Far from being a defect, a winding thread of odd rings at the border of two sheets of graphene has qualities that may prove valuable to manufacturers, according to Rice University scientists.

Graphene, the atom-thick form of carbon, rarely appears as a perfect lattice of chicken wire-like six-atom rings. When grown via chemical vapor deposition, it usually consists of "domains," or separately grown sheets that bloom outward from hot catalysts until they meet up. Where they meet, the regular rows of atoms aren't necessarily aligned, so they have to adjust if they are to form a continuous graphene plane. That adjustment appears as a grain boundary, with irregular rows of five- and seven-atom rings that compensate for the angular disparity. "



Four Grants Selected for
DOE Award for Solid-State Lighting Technology


From U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, January 2015:  

"The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science has selected for award four Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)-Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) proposals targeting advances in solid-state lighting (SSL) technology. The FY15 Phase I Release 1 awards will explore the technical merit or feasibility of an innovative concept or technology. The SBIR and STTR program seeks to increase the participation of small businesses in federal R&D. The SBIR/STTR Phase I Release 1 awards related to SSL are:
  • PhosphorTech Corporation - to investigate a new approach to maximizing the luminous efficacy of a phosphor-converting LED system, using high-quantum -yield red phosphors in combination with surface plasmon resonance, along with enhanced light-extraction efficiency; $149,939.
  • Lumisyn, LLC - to modify the structure of a newly developed class of high-efficiency, non-toxic nanocrystals, to reduce the degree of oxidation thought to be the fundamental cause of poor lifetime; $150,000
  • Triton Systems, Inc - with North Dakota State University to modify and optimize a novel block copolymer system and improve light extraction from GaN LEDs; $149,997.
  • OLEDWorks, LLC - to improve OLED panel reliability by increasing the performance of the short reduction layer; $103,595."
Image Source: U.S. Department of Energy

Los Alamos Develops
New Technique for Growing High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells


From Los Alamos National Laboratory, January 29, 2015:  

"In the journal Science, Los Alamos National Laboratory researchers reveal a new solution-based hot-casting technique that allows growth of highly efficient and reproducible solar cells from large-area perovskite crystals. The researchers fabricated planar solar cells from perovskite materials with large crystalline grains that had efficiencies approaching 18%, among the highest reported in the field of perovskite-based light-to-energy conversion devices. The cells demonstrate little cell-to-cell variability, resulting in devices showing hysteresis-free photovoltaic response, which had been a fundamental bottleneck for stable operation of perovskite devices. "
Image Source: Los Alamos National Laboratory
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Partner2015 SVC TechCon
Promotional Partners

The following publications and organizations are playing an important role promoting the 2015 SVC TechCon within and outside the Vacuum Coating Community.

 



The Association of Vacuum Equipment Manufacturers (AVEM) is the only U.S. association dedicated completely to companies that manufacture vacuum equipment and supplies that serve and advance vacuum science and technology. AVEM was founded in 1969 and is the only non-profit source for market data across the vacuum industry.

www.avem.org

 


Physics World is the membership magazine of the Institute of Physics, one of the largest physical societies in the world. Internationally recognized as a leading physics publication, it provides incisive, global coverage of all topics of interest to physicists. Visit us online at physicsworld.com.

 


SPIE, the international society for optics and photonics, organizes a variety of conferences and exhibitions including Photonics West, Optifab, and DSS. Many SPIE members develop, manufacture, and purchase optical coatings and thin films produced with vacuum coating and surface engineering for unique optical characteristics. Learn more at www.SPIE.org.


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   Upcoming Conferences of Interest 




MRS Spring 2015


 
2015 MRS Spring Meeting & Exhibit

April 6-10, 2015

San Francisco, California


The 2015 MRS Spring Meeting and Exhibit will be held in San Francisco, California. All technical sessions and non-technical events will be held at the Moscone West Convention Center, San Francisco Marriott Marquis and The Westin San Francisco Market Street. 


 


  

2015 MRS Spring Meeting Symposia:

  • Energy
  • Nanomaterials
  • Electronics and Photonics
  • Soft and Biomaterials
  • General- Fabrication and Characterization
Learn more about exhibiting, sponsoring, and technical and non-technical events at:


HIPIMS 2015


 

6th International Conference on Fundamentals and Industrial Applications on HIPIMS

June 8-11, 2015

Braunschweig, Germany

Civic Centre, Stadthalle Braunschweig

 

Offering SVC Tutorial Courses:

Venue: Fraunhofer-Institute IST, Bienroder Weg 54 E, BS
 

June 8, 2015

C-323 High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering | Arutiun P. Ehiasarian
 

June 9, 2015

C-338 Application of Reactive Sputtering, Ralf Bandorf, Holger Gerdes (half day/AM)

C-333 Practice and Applications of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) Ralf Bandorf, Arutiun P. Ehiasarian (half day/PM)


 

HIPIMS 2015 will provide a forum for high-level networking and exchange of knowledge and expertise in the field of HIPIMS between researchers, scientists, and engineers from industry, research labs, and academia. The conference will cover the full range of research and application from fundamental scientific aspects to industrial applications and products. Special emphasis will be given to commercial plasma and material development, commercial equipment and industrial processes. 


 

As a truly international conference, HIPIMS 2015 will present the most recent results of scientific research as well as new applications in the field of HIPIMS technology.


 

Submit your abstract to: hipims2015@inplas.de 




The 13th International Symposium on Sputtering and Plasma Processes

July 8-10, 2015

Kyoto Research Park, Kyoto, Japan  


 

 

The 13th International Symposium on Sputtering and Plasma Processes (ISSP2015) been held biennially and has gathered 135+ presentations and 210+ attendees. The topics of this symposium include: fundamentals of sputtering and plasma processes, sputtering processes, plasma processes, plasma induced process technologies, thin films, micro- and nano-technologies, applications, and others. The program will consist of invited, contributed talks and poster presentations. To encourage young scientists' contributions, poster awards will be given to three outstanding poster presentations.


 

Contact: ISSP 2015 Office, sec@issp2015.org


 

Visit the Web Site: issp2015.org



SEMICON West 2015


SEMICON West 2015

July 14-16, 2015

Moscone Center, San Francisco.  


 

 

Connect to the latest R&D in microelectronics design and manufacturing: advanced materials and processes, lithography, metrology, packaging, test, and more. Engage with the people, products, and companies driving microelectronics innovation. FREE registration until May 8 at www.semiconwest.org.
 
 




The 10th Asian-European International Conference on Plasma Surface Engineering

AEPSE 2015/span>

September 20-24, 2015

Ramada Plaza Jeju Hotel, Jeju Island, Korea  


 

The 10th Anniversary Asian-European International Conference on Plasma Surface Engineering (AEPSE2015) will be held from September 20 to September 24, 2015, in Jeju, Republic of Korea. The AEPSE conference has attracted growing interest as a global open forum for contributing to scientific and industrial progress in applied plasma science and engineering fields.
 
 

  • Abstract Submission Deadline - May 15, 2015
  • Notification of Abstract Acceptance - Jun 15, 2015
  • Early Bird Registration Deadline - Jul 31, 2015
  • Manuscript Submission Deadline - Oct 30, 2015

Learn More at www.aepse2015.org 


Do You Have an Interesting Article to Share?

Interested in sharing the latest news in vacuum coating technology?  Forward us a link to an article you want to share with the rest of the SVC readership to  publications@svc.org.  Purchase advertising space in this newsletter by contacting SVC at svcinfo@svc.org. 


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