SVConnections Feb 2015
Like us on Facebook  Follow us on Twitter  View our profile on LinkedIn   Society of Vacuum CoatersFebruary 2015
In This Issue
Internet of Things
From EETimes Asia,
December 11, 2014: 

"The Internet of Things will offer more solutions as it gains traction in 2015, according to International Data Corporation (IDC). However, for this to become a reality, vendors and customers alike must change their approach.

Drawing from the latest IDC research and internal brainstorming sessions amongst IDC's regional and country analysts, the following are the top 10 key IoT predictions that IDC believes will have the biggest impact on the APeJ (Asia Pacific except Japan) IoT industry in 2015."

1) IoT will create new consumer markets
2) Smart Watches: Early adopters will be the only adopters... for now
3) Wearables will enter the market, for fitness first.
4) Free services to drive consumer IoT adoption
5) Emergence of connected glass solution provider
6) Industrial IoT: Businesses will deploy practical devices
7) The next battlefield: The standard solution to connectivity of many devices
8) IoT's era of coopetition: Partner to thrive in the marketplace
9) Limited supply of analytics and applications
10) Asia/Pacific will become the front line for IoT manufacturing



Nano-Texture For a Wear-Resistant and Near-Frictionless Diamond-Like Carbon

From Materials Today,
December 4, 2014,
by Ala' A. Al-Azizi et al.


"Penn State University and Argonne National Laboratory researchers have studied the effect of nanoscale surface texture on the wear resistance of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. They deposited "1 μm thick DLC films onto silicon substrates pre-textured with pyramidal wells and polystyrene spheres." Researchers used a reciprocating ball-on-flat tribometer to study the nanoscale surface roughness in dry, humid and dry environments. The function and wear behavior of flat and nano-textured DLC films were tested. Nano-texturing of the surface significantly reduced the wear of DLC films but did not affect the friction coefficient in dry and humid nitrogen environments."

Image: Wikipedia
Science Direct

Silicon Nanomembranes as a Means to Evaluate Stress Evolution in Deposited Thin Films

From Extreme Mechanics Letters, December 5, 2014 by Anna M. Clausen, et al.

"Thin-film deposition on ultra-thin substrates poses unique challenges because of the potential for a dynamic response to the film stress during deposition. While theoretical studies have investigated film stress related changes in the substrate, little has been done to learn how stress might evolve in a film growing on a compliant substrate. Researchers use silicon nanomembranes (SiNMs), extremely thin sheets of single-crystalline Si, as a substrate for the growth of amorphous SiNxx to begin to address this question. Nanomembranes are released from a silicon-on-insulator wafer with selective etching, transferred over a hole etched into a Si wafer, and bonded to the edges of the hole. The nanomembrane window provides the substrate for SiNxx deposition and a platform, using Raman spectroscopy, for measurements of the evolving strain in the nanomembrane. From the strain in the nanomembrane, the film stress can be inferred from the required balance of forces in the film/substrate system. We observe that the strain in the tethered NM increases as the NM is made thinner while the intrinsic steady-state stress in the deposited film is reduced."

Image: Extreme Mechanics Letters


Researchers Develop Efficient Method to Produce Nanoporous Metals

From Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, November 25, 2014,
by Kenneth Ma


"Nanoporous metals - foam-like materials that have some degree of air vacuum in their structure - have a wide range of applications because of their superior qualities.

They possess a high surface area for better electron transfer, which can lead to the improved performance of an electrode in an electric double capacitor or battery. Nanoporous metals offer an increased number of available sites for the adsorption of analytes, a highly desirable feature for sensors.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) researchers have developed a cost-effective and more efficient way to manufacture nanoporous metals over many scales, from nanoscale to macroscale, which is visible to the naked eye.

The process begins with a four-inch silicon wafer. A coating of metal is added and sputtered across the wafer. Gold, silver and aluminum were used for this research project. However, the manufacturing process is not limited to these metals.

Next, a mixture of two polymers is added to the metal substrate to create patterns, a process known as diblock copolymer lithography (BCP). The pattern is transformed in a single polymer mask with nanometer-size features. Last, a technique known as anisotropic ion beam milling (IBM) is used to etch through the mask to make an array of holes, creating the nanoporous metal."

Image: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Air-Stable Hybrid LEDs Prepared on Flexible Substrates

From SPIE, December 9, 2014 
by Eugenia Martinez-Ferrero, CETEMMSA Technological Centre Mataró, Spain


"Solid-state lighting (SSL) devices can be made of inorganic and/or organic materials. Organic LEDs (OLEDs) are made of multilayered submicrometric stacks where each layer has a different function, such as charge transport or electroluminescence.

The organic matter and especially the materials employed for the cathodes are sensitive to moisture and oxygen. Therefore, the devices need high-performance encapsulation and must be processed under inert conditions.

Hybrid LEDs (HyLEDs) combine robust transition metal oxides with the organic active layer in devices that can be processed under air and do not require encapsulation. The diodes work with an inverted injection scheme that permits the application of inert metals as counterelectrodes. The structure is formed by a semiconducting transparent electrode, typically ITO (indium-doped tin oxide), an electron transport layer (ETL) made of transition metal oxides, the organic active layer, an inorganic hole transport layer, and the metallic electrode

Image:  SPIE

Unlocking the Potential of Graphenes - Functionalization via Plasma 

From Nanowerk Spotlight,
December 4, 2014, by
Dr. Martin Kemp (Haydale)

"Graphene is inherently inert, making it very difficult to disperse within a target material. Modifying the surface chemistry of graphenes has been identified only relatively recently as a key factor in realizing the full potential of nanomaterials. Incorporating nanomaterials into polymeric and liquid phase applications requires a homogenous dispersion within the secondary phase. This is a difficult task, given the natural tendency of nanomaterials to agglomerate or separate out means that good dispersions can only be attained by engineering the surface of the materials via a functionalization process.

Functionalization can be achieved by wet chemistry involving strong acids. Although these processes are scalable, they utilize aggressive chemicals with an associated waste stream issue and tend to create defects in the material structure and introduce impurities.

The alternative functionalization route, avoiding wet chemistry whilst providing a highly tailored material for both raw material producers and application manufacturers, is via a plasma functionalization process.

The patent-pending process, which has been developed to overcome the key barrier to commercialization, utilizes a low temperature (under 100°C), low pressure gas plasma within a rotating drum containing the nanomaterials selected for functionalization. The ability to control gas and vapour mixtures allow for customized functionalization of a specifically selected nanomaterial, which addresses the issues of graphene's complexity by enabling a customized solution to be provided for specific applications."

UCLA Feb 2015

UCLA Engineers Create 'Superomniphobic' Texture Capable of Repelling All Liquids

From UCLA, November 27, 2014, 
by Matthew Chin
"A pair of researchers from the UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science has created the first surface texture that can repel all liquids, no matter what material the surface is made of.

Because its design relies only on the physical attributes of the texture, the texture could have industrial or biomedical applications. For example, the surface could slow corrosion and extend the life of parts in chemical and power plants, solar cells or cookware.

Researchers demonstrated for the first time true omniphobicity. The engineers formed a surface covered with thousands of microscale flathead nails, each about 20 micrometers in head diameter - each much smaller than the width of a typical human hair - resembling the appearance of existing superoleophobic textures. The key to the team's innovative design is additional nanoscale details around the nail heads..

The surface super-repelled all available liquids, including water, oils and many solvents, qualifying to be superomniphobic. It even super-repelled a fluorinated solvent called perfluorohexane, the liquid with the lowest known surface tension."


Image: UCLA
Rice University

Theory Details How 'Hot' Monomers Affect Thin-Film Formation

From Rice University, 
December 10, 2014, by Mike Williams
"Like a baseball player sliding into third, a hot monomer skids in a straight line along a cold surface until it's safely among its fellow molecules.

This is not what usually happens when scientists assemble monomers to make thin films for next-generation electronics, but the details remained a puzzle until a team led by Rice University got involved. Monomers are organic molecules that, in this application, form clusters and eventually complete layers.

Researchers at Rice and the University of Maryland led by Rice theoretical physicist Alberto Pimpinelli devised the first detailed model to quantify what they believe was the last unknown characteristic of film formation through deposition by vacuum sublimation and chemical vapor deposition. The mathematical model predicts how "hot" monomers on cold substrates affect the growth of thin films being developed for next-generation electronics.


Source: Rice University
Image: Rice University
SEMI logo

Semiconductor Equipment Sales Forecast: $38 Billion in 2014 to Nearly $44 Billion 
in 2015

From SEMI, December 2, 2014

"SEMI projects that worldwide sales of new semiconductor manufacturing equipment will increase 19.3 percent to $38.0 billion in 2014, according to the SEMI Year-end Forecast, released today at the annual SEMICON Japan exposition.  In 2015, strong positive growth is expected to continue, resulting in a global market increase of 15.2 percent before moderating in 2016.

The SEMI Year-end Forecast predicts that wafer processing equipment, the largest product segment by dollar value, is anticipated to increase 17.8 percent in 2014 to total $29.9 billion.  The "Other Front End" category (fab facilities, mask/reticle, and wafer manufacturing equipment) is expected to increase 14.8 percent in 2014

For 2014, Taiwan, North America, and South Korea remain the largest spending regions.  In terms of percentage growth, SEMI forecasts that in 2015, Europe will reach equipment sales of $3.9 billion (47.9 percent increase over 2014), Taiwan will reach $12.3 billion (28.1 percent increase), and South Korea sales will hit $8.0 billion (25.0 percent increase)."

Image:  SEMI
Fraunhofer ISE

New World Record for Solar Cell Efficiency at 46%

From Soitec, December 1, 2014


"A new world record for the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity has been established. The record multi-junction solar cell converts 46 % of the solar light into electrical energy and was developed by Soitec and CEA-Leti, France, together with the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Germany. Multi-junction cells are used in concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems to produce low-cost electricity in photovoltaic power plants, in regions with a large amount of direct solar radiation.

A special challenge that had to be met by this cell is the exact distribution of the photons among the four sub-cells. This has been achieved by precise tuning of the composition and thicknesses of each layer inside the cell structure."


Image: Fraunhofer ISE/Alexander Wekkeli
Vienna Institute of Technology Art9

The Finer Details of Rust

From Vienna University of Technology, December 5, 2014, by Florian Aigner

Magnetite (or Fe3O4) is an elaborate kind of rust - a regular lattice of oxygen and iron atoms. But this material plays an increasingly important role as a catalyst, in electronic devices and in medical applications.

Perhaps the most surprising property of the magnetite surface is that single atoms placed on the surface, for instance gold or palladium, stay perfectly in place instead of balling up and forming a nanoparticle. This effect makes the surface an extremely efficient catalyst for chemical reactions - but nobody had ever been able to tell why magnetite behaves that way.

Scientists at the Vienna University of Technology have now shown that the atomic structure of the magnetite surface, which everybody had assumed to be well-established, has in fact been wrong all along. The properties of magnetite are governed by missing iron atoms in the sub-surface layer. "It turns out that the surface of Fe3O4 is not Fe3O4 at all, but rather Fe11O16", says Professor Ulrike Diebold, head of the metal-oxide-research group at TU Wien (Vienna)."

Source: Vienna University of Technology
Image: Vienna University of Technology

Light Propagation in Solar Cells Made Visible

From EurekAlert!, December 5, 2014, Forschungszentrum Jülich 

"How can light which has been captured in a solar cell be examined in experiments? Jülich scientists have succeeded in looking directly at light propagation within a solar cell by using a trick. The photovoltaics researchers are working on periodic nanostructures that efficiently capture a portion of sunlight which is normally only poorly absorbed.

Until recently, light trapping within periodically nanostructured solar cells could only be analyzed using indirect methods, as captured light is not visible from outside of the solar cell. However, the quantum mechanical tunneling effect of light allows it to be tracked if a light-conducting component is brought extremely close to the cell's surface. Through use of a glass fiber tip, the researchers were able to measure the amount of light that had actually been captured in the solar cell using a method called near-field optical microscopy."

Purdue University

Nanoparticle Network Could Bring Fast-Charging Batteries

From Purdue University, 
December 3, 2014, by Emil Venere

"A new electrode design for lithium-ion batteries has been shown to potentially reduce the charging time from hours to minutes by replacing the conventional graphite electrode with a network of tin-oxide nanoparticles.

The researchers have performed experiments with a "porous interconnected" tin-oxide based anode, which has nearly twice the theoretical charging capacity of graphite. The researchers demonstrated that the experimental anode can be charged in 30 minutes and still have a capacity of 430 milliamp hours per gram (mAh g−1), which is greater than the theoretical maximum capacity for graphite when charged slowly over 10 hours.

The anode consists of an "ordered network" of interconnected tin oxide nanoparticles that would be practical for commercial manufacture because they are synthesized by adding the tin alkoxide precursor into boiling water followed by heat treatment."

Image Source: Purdue University/Vinodkumar Etacheri
Advertising Index


VacuumResearch2  Vacuum Research Jan 2015

Pfeiffer SVConnections Feb 2015
Feb 2015

Advanced Energy
BellowsTech Jan 2015

 PfeifferVacuum  Webinar Ad Jan 15  
 PfeifferVacuum  TechCon Ad 2015

Partner2015 SVC TechCon
Promotional Partners

The following publications and organizations are playing an important role promoting the 2015 SVC TechCon within and outside the Vacuum Coating Community.


Materials Today Logo
Materials Today connects the materials community with the latest research, reviews and news, webinars, academic conferences and much more. Join for free today!


AIMCAL, the Association of International Metallizers, Coaters and Laminators

is an international nonprofit trade association representing converters of metallized, coated, and laminated flexible substrates and their suppliers. AIMCAL provides an array of technical and marketing services while promoting the growth and prosperity of the converting industry and the member companies.  The official technical magazine of AIMCAL - Converting Quarterly - covers the web-processing technologies of solution, extrusion and vacuum coating; laminating; film manufacturing; flexographic and gravure printing; slitting, sheeting and other finishing methods.


Paper, Film & Foil Converter (PFFC) reaches converters of flexible/semi-rigid materials that print, coat, laminate, metallize, extrude, slit, die-cut, and make bags/pouches, labels, tapes, tags, cartons, boxes, fiber tubes, magnetic media, sanitary, and disposable products. Features: Technical/testimonial articles, expert columns, news/events, videos, webinars, and new products. Online Buyer's Guide complements weekly E-Clips e-newsletter. Subscribe at: 



   Upcoming Conferences of Interest 

SPIE Photonics West 2015

SPIE Photonics West


February 7-12, 2015
The Moscone Center
San Francisco, California, USA 


Join your peers at SPIE Photonics West, the #1 laser, photonics, and biomedical optics conference: 20,000 attendees, two exhibitions, 1,250 exhibiting companies, and 4,700 papers on biomedical optics, biophotonics, translational research, industrial lasers, optoelectronics, microfabrication, 3D printing, MOEMS-MEMS, optical communications, displays, and more.

For the most up-to-date information on Photonics West 2015, visit: 



ICE USA 2015

and AIMCAL Technical Programs

February 10-12, 2015

Orange County Convention Center

Orlando, Florida, USA

Featuring the industry's most comprehensive educational sessions and a distinguished line-up of industry experts, the technical programs at ICE were created to provide converting professionals with valuable information and insights they need to enhance their companies' operations and productivity. Organized by AIMCAL (Association of International Metallizers, Coaters and Laminators), the three-day program is divided into eight sessions:

  • Coating Quality
  • Web Handling
  • Extrusion Coating
  • Coating Productivity
  • Winding
  • Web Slitting
  • Surface Treatment
  • Coating Process

Each day will begin with a thought-provoking keynote presentation, followed by three concurrent 2-hour technical sessions (one in each track) led by well-known industry experts. The sessions are scheduled from 10am to noon, providing attendees ample time to visit the ICE show floor and experience converting technology in action.


Learn More and register:


NCCAVS 36th Annual Equipment Exhibition

February 19, 2015

Holiday Inn San Jose Airport

San Jose, California

Held In Conjunction with:

4th Annual Student Poster Session

NCCAVS Symposium / Joint User Group Meeting

"Technology Innovation for Next Generation Materials and Manufacturing"


The NCCAVS sponsors an Annual Equipment Exhibition to showcase products and services of companies supporting vacuum-related industries. Attracting approximately 100+ exhibitors and ~700 attendees, the NCCAVS Annual Equipment Exhibition is the largest sponsored by any AVS Chapter.


Learn more and register: 



2015FLEX:  Flexible & Printed Electronics Conference & Exhibits

February 23-26, 2015

Monterey Conference Center

Monterey, California 

FlexTech is proud to present the 14th Annual Flexible & Printed Electronics Conference & Exhibition featuring 700+ attendees - 60+ exhibitors - 5 short courses - great networking opportunities!  The event theme of Bringing Technology & Products to Marketreflects the steady integration of flexible and printed electronics components in a wide array of products and processes.


The preliminary agenda reveals a strong technical emphasis on materials, process, equipment and materials for flexible electronics.  The event will focus on how flexible electronics are demonstrating the value of light-weight, low-power products to non-traditional electronics markets, such as smart packaging, flexible displays and human performance medical monitors.  For those not familiar with the status or challenges facing this technology's development, the 2015FLEX Conference & Exhibits is a great place to meet the players, hear issues and determine where the opportunities lie.  



BIT 1st Annual World Congress of Smart Materials - 2015


March 23-25, 2015

Busan Exhibition & Convention Center (BEXCO)

Busan, Republic of Korea


WCSM-2015 is intended to provide a platform for professionals around the world to exchange state-of-the-art research and development and identify research needs and opportunities in this emerging field of Smart Materials. This is the Asian Branch of WCAM (World Congress of Advanced Materials). Smart materials are one of the most important researching directions in development of High-tech new materials and can help in removing the boundaries between structural and functional materials, which may result in significant revolution in materials science development. WCSM will bring about enormous benefits as well as open up a new and broader pathway for information and experience exchange all over the world.

January 15, 2015: Deadline for Abstract Submissions

Learn More and Register Online: 


MRS Spring 2015

2015 MRS Spring Meeting & Exhibit

April 6-10, 2015

San Francisco, California

The 2015 MRS Spring Meeting and Exhibit will be held in San Francisco, California. All technical sessions and non-technical events will be held at the Moscone West Convention Center, San Francisco Marriott Marquis and The Westin San Francisco Market Street. 



2015 MRS Spring Meeting Symposia:

  • Energy
  • Nanomaterials
  • Electronics and Photonics
  • Soft and Biomaterials
  • General- Fabrication and Characterization
Learn more about exhibiting, sponsoring, and technical and non-technical events at:


Do You Have an Interesting Article to Share?

Interested in sharing the latest news in vacuum coating technology?  Forward us a link to an article you want to share with the rest of the SVC readership to  Purchase advertising space in this newsletter by contacting SVC at 

Society of Vacuum Coaters 
71 Pinon Hill Place NE 
Albuquerque, New Mexico 87122