C-SPAN3's American History TV has been airing our interviews with Manhattan Project veterans and family members from the "Voices of the Manhattan Project" collection. Be sure to watch! You can find the TV schedule here or see them on C-SPAN's oral histories website here. Enjoy!
MPParkManhattan Project Park Update
Fuller Lodge at Los Alamos
On July 28 the National Park Service and the Department of Energy released a draft 
Memorandum of Agreement (MOA)
 for jointly managing the park. Over the past month, NPS has been soliciting comments on the draft. 

The Atomic Heritage Foundation submitted the following comments. For our full comments, please click here.

"As a nonprofit organization dedicated to the interpretation of the Manhattan Project and its legacy, we look forward to working collaboratively with the National Park Service and the Department of Energy on the interpretation of the new park.

B Reactor at Hanford
"We also understand the need to defer to the Department of Energy over national security concerns. However, in recent years the policies governing public access have become increasingly restrictive, especially at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. To allow greater public access to the Manhattan Project sites, we urge that the DOE consider adjusting policies, practices and even security boundaries to be more accommodating."

The National Trust for Historic Preservation and the Energy Communities Alliance have also submitted comments on the draft agreement. Once the comments are reviewed, the MOA will be revised as appropriate and sent to the Secretary of the Interior and Secretary of Energy for approval. The law requires that the agreement be final by December 19, 2015 when the park will be officially established as a unit of the National Park System known as the Manhattan Project National Historical Park.

Walter Goodman
We are sad to report the deaths of two Manhattan Project veterans, Walter Goodman and Kenneth Pumphrey. Goodman passed away on August 22 at the age of 92. Pumphrey passed away on July 20 at the age of 87.

Walter Goodman joined the Special Engineer Detachment at Los Alamos in 1943. He worked as an electrical engineer on the implosion bomb with Manhattan Project scientists Luis Alvarez and Harold Agnew. In July 1945, after witnessing the Trinity test, he traveled to Tinian to help prepare the Fat Man bomb. 

Photo by Ken Pumphrey
On August 9, 1945, he witnessed the bombing of Nagsaki from The Great Artiste. Goodman, who had a video camera with him, took motion pictures of the mushroom cloud above Nagasaki. The photo at the top of the newsletter shows Goodman, Alvarez, Bernard Waldman, Harold Agnew and an unknown man in front of a shrine on Tinian.

Kenneth Pumphrey joined the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos in 1946. He worked as a security guard until 1948, guarding various site facilities and checking ID badges, which were required to enter certain restricted areas and buildings. Afterwards, Pumphrey worked as a steam fitter for Honeywell.

Both Goodman and Pumphrey were prolific photographers. Visit their profiles (Goodman, Pumphrey) to see more of their photos.

AUExhibitionHiroshima and Nagasaki Anniversaries
The bombing of Hiroshima
Many media outlets covered the 70th anniversaries of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the surrender of Japan. Here is a roundup of some of the most interesting and thought-provoking articles. 

No doubt that the debate over the bombs will continue for decades to come. 
NewsManhattan Project Veterans on Hiroshima
The Atomic Heritage Foundation has over 300 interviews with Manhattan Project veterans and their families on the Voices of the Manhattan Project website. Here are some excerpts in which veterans and their family members recall and reflect on the bombing of Hiroshima. For more excerpts, click here.

The Enola Gay on Tinian
Robert Lewis, co-pilot on the Enola Gay: There was this most awesome sight. The city that had been in front of us, with its dignitaries and bridges and trolleys all outlined, was no longer visible. The city was on fire already and the fire was stretching through the countryside and the tributaries. I expected that if we had been able to pretty well destroy this target, we would have accomplished our mission. I did not expect to see the city disappear.

Gwen Groves Robinson, daughter of General Leslie R. Groves: It was on the radio, I think that was sort of where we heard about it. It was a big bomb, and there was my father had done all this work. That is how we found out. You do not believe that, but that is the truth. And my mother was truly astonished.

General Leslie R. Groves
General Leslie R. Groves, director of the Manhattan Project: I never had any trouble sleeping. I even went to sleep at the most critical time from my standpoint, which was waiting for news from Hiroshima. After I got the news of the dropping, I wrote a report that I was going to make to General Marshall the next morning. This was about 11:30 at night. Then I gave it to Mrs. O'Leary [his secretary], who wasn't going to sleep-she couldn't.
I said, "Now I'm going to sleep in here and when the next message comes in, which will be the message after the plane gets back to Tinian, I want you to wake me up, and we'll go over this report."

Leona Woods Marshall, physicist: In wartime, it was a desperate time. I think we did right and we couldn't have done differently. When you're in a war to the death, I don't think you stand around and say, "Is it right?"

HarpersFerry"Manhattan" Returns in October
WGN America's television show "Manhattan" will return on Tuesday, October 13 with the second season. The trailer for this season looks to be full of drama, as the scientists deal with espionage, developing the implosion method for the plutonium bomb, and personal intrigue.

If you are catching up on the show, be sure to read our recaps here. We explain which aspects are fabricated for dramatic effect and which are closer to what actually happened.

VoicesAHF Program Manager
Owen Pagano
We wish the best to our Program Manager Owen Pagano, who is moving to Boston to pursue a career in marketing. Owen started as an intern at AHF in 2012, when he was an undergraduate at GWU. After graduating summa cum laude, he joined AHF full-time. He has done a terrific job helping to manage the "Ranger in Your Pocket" programs and our websites, along with editing dozens of our oral histories.

We look forward to welcoming our new Program Manager, Nate Weisenberg, in mid-September. Nate has an extensive background in oral history work, with an MA in Public Humanities from Brown University and a BS in Foreign Service from Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service. Nate will be a great addition to our team.

Here are some recent additions to our Voices of the Manhattan Project website.

Robert J.S. Brown was a member of the Special Engineer Detachment at Los Alamos. He worked under Don Hornig on the electrical aspects of detonation for the plutonium bomb. In this interview, Brown discusses how he was recruited into the SED and his experience as an Army member at Los Alamos. He  talks about the friends he made at Los Alamos as well as his encounters with famous spies. Brown also gives his opinion on J. Robert Oppenheimer and General Groves as leaders of the project.

Robert Carter is an American physicist who joined the Manhattan Project first at Purdue and then at Los Alamos. He worked in a group that was assigned to create an operating nuclear reactor that ran on enriched uranium. In this interview, Carter discusses how he came to be interested in physics and wrapped up in the Manhattan Project instead of being drafted. He also talks about working on the enriched uranium reactor and how he taught several big name scientists, including Enrico Fermi, how to operate it. Carter also discusses meeting Oppenheimer and seeing the Trinity test unauthorized, as well as his interactions with spies Klaus Fuchs and Ted Hall.

Peter Galison is the Joseph Pellegrino University Professor in History of Science and Physics at Harvard University. The central component of Galison's work involves the exploration of twentieth century physics, including atomic, nuclear, and particle physics. In this interview, Galison discusses the two pillars of twentieth century physics, relativity theory and quantum physics, and how these foundational ideas played a role in the development of the atomic bomb. Galison also explains the basic principles of nuclear fission and the scaling up of this technology into a nuclear production reactor. 

General Leslie Groves Part 12 -  Groves discusses the design of the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant in Oak Ridge and the dispute with the Tennessee Valley Authority to supply power to the plant. He explains in detail the delivery schedule for enriched uranium and the timeline leading up to the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Groves also discusses the organization of security and counterintelligence established during the Manhattan Project and supervised by Colonel John Lansdale.

Alexander Langsdorf was an American physicist who worked under Enrico Fermi at the University of Chicago. He helped design the nuclear reactor Chicago Pile-2, following the success of Chicago Pile-1. After the war, Langsdorf become an outspoken opponent of the proliferation of nuclear weapons and helped found the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. In this conversation with author Stephane Groueff, Langsdorf describes how he became involved in the Manhattan Project, his decision to stay in Chicago rather than go to Los Alamos, the genius of Enrico Fermi, and the process of designing and building a heavy water nuclear reactor. 

General Kenneth Nichols Part 2 - Nichols discusses his key role in the Manhattan Project and the chain of command. He explains his relationship with fellow Manhattan Project directors General Leslie R. Groves, Secretary of War Henry Stimson, and scientists Vannevar Bush and James B. Conant. Nichols recalls purchasing 1,200 tons of uranium ore from Belgian Edgar Sengier for the project and the challenges of developing a barrier for the gaseous diffusion plant. He also discusses financial accountability and Congressional oversight of the project.

We have been working hard to bring you first-hand accounts from Manhattan Project veterans, updates on the new park and much more. Please let us know how we can serve you better and consider making a donation to support our efforts. Thank you!

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