Resampled color

November 2014
In This Issue
A Thrill about the Chill

There's a chill in the air! Many of us feel strongly about the upcoming winter weather and can't wait for the first snowflake or we dread the prospect of winter coats and boots. Regardless, there are great learning opportunities as we contemplate the changes in weather.

Children can explore how people and animals prepare for weather. Use books or Internet to learn how preparations for winter differ. Talk about squirrels gathering acorns, adults chopping wood for fireplaces or getting out their winter clothes, birds migrating, etc.  

Talk about the types of clothing that match the weather

Put a picture or poster of a summer day or sunbather on one side of the room and a picture or poster of a winter day or snowperson on the other. Gather varied types of clothes and put them in a pile in the center of the room. Ask children to pick one item and decide if it goes on the summer side or the winter side. Include clothing items like flip flops, boots, a sun visor, mittens, scarf, bathing suit, etc. For a more challenging discussion, add something like an umbrella or raincoat. (These could go on either side).


It's fun to find out 
about others' preferences 
for weather.
Ask questions like, "would you rather jump in leaves, make a snow angel or make a sand castle on the beach?" "Would you rather curl up under a warm blanket and read a book or watch TV or lay on a beach towel and watch the ocean waves?" "Do you like to wear warm pajamas or shorts and a tank top?" Take a poll? Graph the answers.


Expand children's observational skills by investigating changes in the neighborhood. Even the youngest children can carry a crayon and paper and draw (or make scribbles) about changes that are seen in the neighborhood. Leaves on the ground, different colored leaves, fallen nuts or seeds, busy squirrels, the blowing wind, dying flowers or plants, brown grass, etc. Ask children to be "observant scientists" and draw what they see. Take the same walk a few days later and ask them to draw again-did the environment change?



Leaf Color Match (sung to: "Hokey-Pokey")

You hold your (red) leaf up,

You hold your (red) leaf down,

You hold your (red) leaf up,

And you wave it all around!

You take it for a walk and look for (red)

things all around.

Then tell me what you found!


Books about Seasonal Changes:

The Turning of the Year by Bill Martin, Jr

The Seasons of Arnold's Apple Tree  

by Gail Gibbons

Nature in the Neighborhood  

by Gordon Morrison

Moon Glowing  

by Elizabeth Partridge

Winter's Coming: A Story of Seasonal Change   

by Jan Thornhill and Josee Bisallion 

Animals in Fall: Preparing for Winter or Fall Weather: Cooler Temperatures (Cloverleaf Books - Fall's Here!)  by Martha E. H. Rustad  


  CLICK HERE to download full article with Early Learning Foundations 


Exciting News! A White House Summit on Early Education will be held December 10, 2014  


The Summit will bring together a broad coalition of philanthropic, business, education, advocacy and elected leaders, as well as other stakeholders who are committed to expanding access to high-quality early education. It is anticipated that the awards for the federal $500 million Early Head Start-Child Care Partnership grants and the $250 million Preschool Development grants to enhance and expand access to high quality preschool programs will be announced at the summit. Studies show that for every dollar invested in early childhood education, there is a rate of return of $7 or more through a reduced need for spending on other services, such as remedial education, grade repetition and special education, as well as increased productivity and earnings for participating children as adults. More information is forthcoming. If you are interested in learning more, you may wish to subscribe to the list 



Remember - you can forward your E-News on to others who may then elect to subscribe simply by clicking on the "JOIN OUR MAILING LIST" button near the top of the E-News.  


It is such an exciting time to be working on early learning in our state - we hope you will share this E-News with others  


Curriculum Incentive Fund     


More than 100 Delaware Star 3, 4 and 5 programs applied to participate in the Delaware Stars Curriculum Incentive Fund opportunity. The Incentive Fund offered programs funding to support their purchase of comprehensive curriculum resource materials. The fund is designed to assist Stars programs to acquire infant, toddler and/or preschool curricula that is aligned with the Early Learning Foundations and will meet Stars Standard LC1 - use of a comprehensive standard.


Providers selected curricula from the Delaware Stars approved curriculum list. Their choices included: Core Knowledge, Creative Curriculum, FunShine Express online, Family Child Care, High Scope, Mother Goose Time and Scholastic Big Day for Pre-K. Creative Curriculum, High Scope, and Funshine Express Online were the most widely-selected tools. Related professional development will be explored to support programs' use.


2014 Innovator Award Winners at  

NAEYC Annual Conference   


The 2014 Innovator Award was presented to Dr. Thelma Harms, Dr. Debby Cryer and Dr. Richard M. Clifford, best known for their collective work on Environment Rating Scales (including the ECERS, ITERS, FCCERS and SACERS), the NAEYC (National Association for the Education of Young Children) Annual Conference.


The Environment Rating Scales are now being used worldwide to ensure children are receiving the highest quality care and education.


Read the full story at


 The Economic Benefits of Closing Educational Achievement Gaps:

Promoting Growth and Strengthening the Nation by Improving the Educational Outcomes of Children of Color


Our nation is currently experiencing growing levels of income and wealth inequality, which are contributing to longstanding racial and ethnic gaps in education outcomes and other areas. These large gaps, in combination with the significant demographic changes already underway, are threatening the economic future of our country. Thus, closing racial and ethnic gaps is not only key to fulfilling the potential of people of color; it is also crucial to the well-being of our nation. This report quantifies the economic benefits of closing one of the most harmful racial and ethnic gaps: the educational achievement gap that exists between black and Hispanic children and native-born white children.



Quality early learning gives children birth to 5 years a great start! To learn more about Delaware's approach - go to

 NBC News has Launched a New App  

for Parents    

To help parents participate in their children's academic success and personal growth, NBC News' Education Nation produced The Parent Toolkit App.  Sponsored by Pearson, the toolkit is available in English and Spanish on iOS and Android devices. The Parent Toolkit App offers a seamless user-led experience to help parents find and organize information that aligns with their child's academic progress from Pre-K through 12th grade. Users can share tips on social networks, create family profiles, and mark items as priorities. The Parent Toolkit ( 

Join Amy McCready, Founder of Positive Parenting Solutions and Jennifer Miller, author of Confident Parents, Confident Kids for the NBC Education Nation sponsored Twitter Chat entitled "Attitude of Gratitude: How to Raise Thankful Kids." Tuesday, November 18th at 7:00 p.m. EST, follow the twitter feed #ToolkitTalk and contribute to this important dialogue! Gain ideas for the upcoming holiday season to promote grateful thinking in your family life.



Kindergarten and Early Learning Teachers Gather in Dover for the Second Annual Kindergarten Conference


More than 100 kindergarten and early learning educators gathered at Dover Downs on Saturday, October 25, focused on learning new strategies, tools and ideas to help students grow and learn in kindergarten.

Deanna Bilecki, kindergarten teacher from Brandywine Springs.


The event also featured a keynote presentation by Dave Matteson, who currently works with programs and school districts across the country, primarily focusing on literacy development. He has over 25 years of experience as a classroom teacher, Reading Recovery ® teacher and coordinator of teacher and school development through The Learning Network ®. He is also the co- author of Assessing and Teaching Beginning Readers and Assessing and Teaching Beginning Writers, as well as creator of My Pictures and Stories, a writing journal, and the Emergent Reading Assessment (ERA).


Delaware Lt. Governor, Matt Denn spoke to the group at lunch, thanking them for their devotion and commitment to teaching and sharing updates regarding education in Delaware.


Participants also attended several workshops from "Working with English Language Learners in Kindergarten and their Families" to "Developing Rich Math Skills", "Common Core Book Talks for Kids" to "Seeing Science Everywhere."


Office of Early Learning program manager, Brandi Miller, said the conference continues to strengthen the connection between early learning and kindergarten. "The conference is a great way to bring the community of teachers together to focus on ways to ensure that children are getting a quality education in kindergarten."




2014 Stars Celebrations


Delaware Star programs throughout the state came together in each county recently to celebrate their accomplishments and recognize "Shining Stars," an annual award program that acknowledges individuals who have gone above and beyond to ensure that all children in the first state get a great start.


The first event was held at Sussex Technical High School in Georgetown, where more than 100 participants gathered to enjoy the evening. The New Castle County Celebration was held at the Delmarva Conference Center in Newark, and the Kent County Celebration will be held on November 19 at the Smyrna Opera House. 


The number of early learning programs participating in Stars has grown considerably since the Challenge Grant started, from 134 to 455 in September 2014, with 59 percent of the programs in the top tiers (rated Star 3, 4 or 5) of the quality and improvement ratings program.


Congratulations to those Star programs moving up and to those starting with Stars. Congratulations are also in order for the recipients of the 2014 "Shining Stars" awards.



Rising Stars Shining Bright!
Congratulations to the programs moving up in October! 

CONGRATULATIONS to this brand new Star Level 5:
Lil' Red Hen Nursery School, Inc.


And it is a pleasure to announce that these programs have earned Star Level 4 status: 

Happy Munchkins, Kid's Inc. - Reformation Lutheran Church, Lullaby Learning Center at North Village Main.

Moving up to Star Level 3 this past month: 
Miracles of Life Childcare 
As Delaware families look to the Stars when searching for early childhood programs, they find quality early learning programs such as the Stars programs that have moved up in quality rating!


Our Congratulations to Wilmington Preschoolers

Who Helped to Break a Reading Record!


Forty-five four year-olds from the Star 4 New Castle County Head Start Absalom Jones Center in Wilmington contributed directly to the success of this record breaking event, setting a new Guinness World Record for the largest vocabulary lesson ever! "It really was a wonderful experience," said Melissa Earl, the center's coordinator and she noted, "It was a great way to celebrate what our students do every day."


These children were among 4,000 children in 37 cities in 15 states and Washington, D.C. reading at the same time on the same day. The record-breaking event was organized by PNC Bank through its "Grow Up Great" program that aims to help boost early education. "Pursuit of this world record is a great way to bring attention to a serious issue - the importance of vocabulary for a child's success in school and life," said Nicholas Marsini, regional president for PNC/Delaware and chair of Delaware's Commission on Early Education and the Economy. The lesson the students participated in is online - visit the Grow Up Great lesson center at The center includes many activities parents or early educators can engage children in that promote early learning in the areas of science and the arts.  

For more, (link 



Announcing Market Rate Survey Information Sessions
Every two years, each state that receives federal funding for childcare services must conduct a Market Rate Survey. In Delaware, the 2015 Market Rate Survey will be carried out from January to April by Workplace Solutions.  This Survey is designed to determine the prices that providers charge for their private-paying clients. The information is then used to determine the 75th percentile market rate prices. The market rate is used as the standard for state reimbursement-rate policies.
The survey has been designed to evaluate prices charged to private-paying families' statewide, for both full-time and school age care. A representative sample of providers in each county in Delaware will be contacted to complete the Market Rate Survey.  The survey will be conducted via telephone interviews. The interview has been designed to be brief and easy for the providers. In past years, we have had high participation from providers statewide. If you are contacted for the study, we urge you to participate in the survey.
If you would like more information about the 2015 Market Rate Survey, please attend one of the following information sessions:
Kent County                                                                       New Castle County
Monday, December 8, 2014, 6:00 P.M-7:30 PM          Tuesday, December 9, 2014, 6:00 P.M-7:30 PM    Delaware Dept. of Transportation                                  Herman M. Holloway, Sr. Campus
Farmington Room                                                              Division of Social Services Offices
800 Bay Road, Dover, DE 19903                                      1901 N. DuPont Hwy, New Castle, DE 19720       302-894-2947                                                                     302- 255-9922
For more information, please contact:
Marleen Waples, Social Service Administrator
Purchase of Care


PEDS and Bright Futures are Focus of 2014 Esterly Lectures


The turn-out at the two lecture series over the past month (one in Dover and one in Wilmington), which are part of the Katherine L. Esterly, MD Childhood Development Lecture Series, was outstanding!  The lecture series honors Katherine (Kitty) Esterly, MD for her leadership in the field of pediatrics and neonatology.  


At the Dover event, Frances Glascoe, Ph.D., spoke about the Delaware use of the PEDS (Parent Evaluation of Developmental Status) early childhood developmental screening tool.  Her website ( ,Delaware Users bar on menu) is a great source of information about the use of PEDS in our state, which is growing!  The newly developed PEDS Toolkit for Health Practitioners can be seen on that site, as well as its individual components examined. 


In Wilmington, the keynote presenter was Joe Hagan, MD, who spoke about the Bright Futures program of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Allen Friedland, MD presented on the use of the PEDS screen in practices in our state,and talked about how valuable the newly developed PEDS toolkit is.  

and is pictured below with Tim Gibbs, executive director of the Delaware Academy of Medicine.



NESSE Team Hosts Successful Community Conversations


Implementing the first phase of its action plan, the North East Wilmington Readiness Team, known as NESSE, brought together dozens of community residents and agency representatives for a series of enjoyable and informative "conversations" around four topics the team identified as being important to family readiness: health, education, nutrition and finance. 

Rather than one-way presentations, the team wanted to create a forum with in which community residents and service providers and agencies could have a dialogue, or two-way conversations, that would allow agencies to learn as much about the community as the community learned about agency services. The team gained some valuable insight about connecting with the community as well as some potential new members, and all agreed this was an exciting first step in creating effective change in the communities comprising North East Wilmington. More importantly, all agreed the evenings were a lot of fun!



Strengthening Hope and Resilience Every Day
SHARE-Strengthening Hope and Resilience Everyday-a new resource from the Oklahoma Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services (ODMHSAS)-is a webpage dedicated to "all things Trauma-informed." The website hosts a portal to a new e-learning series "Trauma is just the beginning," which features online training videos for all levels of staff in all departments in all its system partners. Once registered, the training vid­eos and the accompanying CEUs are FREE. "Trauma is just the beginning" is a free three hour e-learning covering basic trauma informed principles. This training is available to all levels of disciplines.


The next meeting of the Delaware Early Childhood Council will be held on December 9, 2014 from   9:30 - 10:30am at the Department of Services for Children, Youth and Their Families, 1825 Faulkland Road, Conference Room 199 Wilmington, Delaware.


We did it again!  Delaware is the Small State Winner in
text4baby 2014 State Enrollment Contest!

Text4baby is a free service that sends helpful texts to pregnant and first-year moms about keeping themselves and their babies happy and healthy.  Delaware has been the small state enrollment contest winner for two years in a row!

Joining text4baby is easy.  CLICK THIS LINK to go to the sign up page.

An Interview with Delaware Stars Executive Director, Annette Searfoss


Delaware Stars recently welcomed Annette Searfoss as the new executive director of the quality and improvement ratings system for early learning programs. E-News had the opportunity to speak with her about her new role.


E-News: What attracted you to Delaware Stars?

Annette Searfoss 


AS: It is an incredibly exciting time in early childhood education. More and more people are recognizing the importance of a quality early learning experience to children's success in school and in life. State 
systems like Delaware Stars help us to organize what we know about that quality early learning experience in meaningful, achievable steps that build on licensing requirements and culminate in the types of settings that can positively impact children's physical, social, and emotional development.


Delaware Stars attracted me because of its connection with the University of Delaware. UD's outstanding reputation for research that directly influences practice in early childhood has a long history through the Delaware Institute for Excellence in Early Childhood, including programs like New Directions Early Head Start. The connection with UD, and its abundance of resources, allows Delaware Stars to be a national leader in the discussion about systems that support quality early learning programs for our children and families.

E-News: Were there any aspects of the program that were a surprise to you?


AS: I was surprised at the increase in participation since the Stars re-design in 2012-and pleasantly surprised that the Early Learning Challenge Grant projected participation has already exceeded expectations for December 2015 in most settings. This is a reflection of the incredible efforts that have preceded me.


In my first six weeks, I have been continually amazed at the passion, energy, and commitment of so many early childhood and school-age stakeholders. Whether I am meeting with a new Stars program, or a Stars staff member, or state partners, it is immediately evident that all Delaware early childhood stakeholders want what is best for Delaware's children and families.


E-News: Compared to many other states, Delaware has very high participation rates of programs actively seeking to improve the quality of their programs (as of September. 2014, 60 percent of all programs enrolled in Stars were in the tip tiers (rated Star 3 through 5.) Could you please share your opinion about why participation in a quality and improvement ratings system like Delaware Stars is good for a program, children and families?


AS: As a previous family child care provider, teacher and administrator in an early childhood program, I often struggled with the question, "Am I doing what's best for my children and families?" In the days before standards for programs and standards for children, we were left to figure it out on our own.

Programs that participate in quality rating and improvement systems like Delaware Stars have it much easier than I did. Stars programs have a clear set of standards, informed by recent research, and multiple supports to get there-such as technical assistance, financial supports, and assessors that provide programs with a "blueprint" for improving programs. While it certainly takes hard work to achieve a Stars level designation, there is less confusion about what we can be doing for children and families, and that could save time and frustration in the long run.


Children and families are the ultimate benefactors of a quality rating improvement system like Delaware Stars. Programs in Delaware Stars are expected to use developmental screening tools that help with early identification of developmental delays, reducing the need for special education in school. They are also expected to use a research-based curriculum and assessment that ensure children are building foundational social, emotional and cognitive skills critical to school and career success. Stars programs partner with families to ensure children are safe, healthy, nurtured and eager to learn.


E-News: What is your big picture goal for Delaware Stars?


AS: My goal for Delaware Stars is that all children will have access to a Star 5 program, especially those children who are at risk for developmental delays due to poverty, special needs, or are learning English in addition to their home language. This will begin when families request Star Level 5 programs. It will continue when each community values and supports their early learning and school-age programs, including having the resources to attract and retain qualified staff members.

Delaware Stars provides us with a framework for continuous quality improvement as we continue to learn what children and families need in our ever-changing society and economy. It provides us all with a common language-a set of standards-to both acknowledge the excellent work of programs and inspire them and us to do even more. My goal is to use the language of Delaware Stars to bring all stakeholders together-programs, higher education, state systems, nonprofit organizations, business and legislators-for Delaware's children, our future citizens.


E-News: Thank you so much.


Staying Objective in Observation

Do everyday observations give us a true picture of the baby? This  podcast explains how to observe babies and record what is seen in an objective way that can help staff understand the meaning of a child's behavior.



Creating a Conversation About Anywhere, Anytime Learning! 

If you missed the October web conference, you can access the archive via this LINK 






Screen Sense: Setting the Record Straight-Research-Based Guidelines for Screen Use for Children Under 3 Years Old


Are screens bad for babies and toddlers? This is a critical question as the majority of young children, as young as 6 months-are using screen media, and parents are confused about what kind and how much media their children should be consuming. Unfortunately, research findings on screen media are rarely translated in a way that is useful to parents; and much of the guidance found in the popular media is based on ideology and not science.  


To fill the gap, ZERO TO THREE has developed Screen Sense: 


New, free resource for early learning at home for Pre-K (3-5 yrs)    


Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) announced the launch of Curious World,  a website designed to help families prepare young children for school and the world with fun activities that spark curiosity and help kids meet key developmental milestones.

"The preschool years are the most formative when it comes to cognitive development. Scientific research consistently points to early learning as a key predictor of future academic achievement and lifelong success"

Rooted in the latest research on the science of learning, Curious World provides preschool learning games for parents and children to do together, built on eight key learning areas that map to HMH's early learning curriculum, including math, literacy and languages and creative expression. Featuring both online and offline activities,  is specifically designed to help parents incorporate school-readiness into everyday life through easy, hands-on experiences.  The Curious World app is available for free download from the App Store.


Hocus Pocus, Time to Focus - Executive Function in Learning
"If you watch several preschoolers for a while, you may notice a difference in the way they focus on activities like dressing themselves or stacking blocks. Some may have long enough attention spans to quickly complete the tasks at hand, while some may get frustrated or distracted and give up early. The ability of young children to manage tasks like these is related to what researchers call "executive function" of the brain-the ability to control impulses, to concentrate for long periods of time, and to master complicated tasks."
                                          -  Too Small to Fail 

This Too Small To Fail page offers some  interesting resources about executive function in preschoolers, including an article from Parents magazine and an article and video from Harvard Graduate School of Education.



Executive Function and Self-Regulation   


Executive function and self-regulation 

(EF/SR) skills provide critical supports for learning and development, and while we aren't born with these skills, we are born with the potential to develop them through interactions and practice.  


A New 16-page guide describes a variety of activities and games that represent age-appropriate ways for adults to support and strengthen various components of EF/SR in children.


Each chapter of this guide contains activities suitable for a different age group, from infants to teenagers. The guide may be read in its entirety (which includes the introduction and references) or in discrete sections geared to specific age groups.


Preschool to 3rd-Grade Alignment

The spotlight is on moving beyond preschool as a stand-alone grade and aligning it with early elementary grades. The National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP) released an updated, principal competency guide []  which defines new competencies and outlines a practical approach to high-quality early childhood education for young children from age three to grade three. 


The Education Commission of the States is also focusing on the issue, releasing "a policymaker's guide,"offering recommended foundations of effective preschool to grade 3 alignment. Birth to grade 3rd is one of the focus areas of CEELO. 


Reading Aloud to Infants and Toddlers Promotes Early Literacy   


Recent media attention has focused on how reading aloud to infants promotes positive early literacy outcomes and has a strong, lasting developmental impact.  Reading Aloud to Infants and Toddlers At Home and In the Classroom Promotes Early Language and Literacy Skills , from the Early Care and Education Consortium, explains the research behind why reading aloud to infants, and incorporating ongoing "serve and return" interaction, is so important for promoting early language and literacy.



The Difference Enough Sleep Can Make for Toddlers  


Toddlers who get too little sleep tend to eat more and are at increased risk for obesity, a new study indicates. It included children in over 1,300 British families who had their sleep measured when they were 16 months old and their diet checked when they were 21 months old. Those who slept less than 10 hours a day consumed about 10 percent more calories than those who slept more than 13 hours. 

 Brush Up On Oral Health: Oral Injuries   


This issue of Brush Up on Oral Health identifies supplies to include in a first aid kit for treating oral injuries. It also explains how to give first aid for the five most common oral injuries that happen to young children with primary (baby) teeth.  

You can subscribe and view all issues on the Early Childhood Learning & Knowledge Center

Developmental Screening


As national health and child development leaders and policymakers work to increase developmental screening rates and improve child outcomes, child care and early education programs are critical partners. A new CLASP brief,  First Steps for Early Success: State Strategies to Support Developmental Screening in Early Childhood Settings, explores the role of child care and early education programs in connecting children to developmental screening, as well as national efforts and funding streams to support developmental screening and its relationship to early childhood.




Click for Babies to Prevent Infant Abuse  


This month kicks off an annual campaign sponsored by the National Center on Shaken Baby Syndrome (NCSBS) that brings together knitters from across the country to make purple baby caps and create awareness about the leading trigger of infant abuse-infant crying. The purple caps are given to new parents during the month of November, in addition to a video, booklet, and other educational materials about the Period of PURPLE Crying. The "click" in the campaign title is representative of the sound knitters make, in addition to the sound of mouse and keyboard clicks by users sharing and gaining information.

For more information, CLICK HERE and HERE
Current Knowledge on Children's Mental Health


Child Trends and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation have published a report, Are the Children Well? A Model and Recommendations for Promoting the Mental Wellness of the Nation's Young People, that summarizes current knowledge on children's mental health and provides a comprehensive framework for understanding mental wellness. The report discusses mental wellness from early childhood to early adulthood, showing how what happens at early stages of development influences later stages. It highlights the evidence for interventions that can improve mental health wellness at multiple levels. 



2014 Diversity/Equity Learning Table: Materials Now Available Online    


From May to September, six states participated in a BUILD Initiative and QRIS National Learning Network-supported Learning Table on the topic of assuring that state Quality Rating and Improvement Systems are responsive to children who are culturally, linguistically and socio-economically diverse.


QRIS Compendium Is LIVE!



The BUILD Initiative is excited to announce the launch of the searchable web-based QRIS Compendium at 

This website will give you the latest details on quality rating and improvement systems (QRIS) in every state, territory and region/locality.  


To register for our demonstration webinar on Thursday, December 4th from 2 to 3 pm ET, CLICK HERE. 



Supporting Young Children's Development and Learning through QRIS

As part of their efforts to ensure that Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS) are supporting the unique developmental needs of infants and toddlers, the ZERO TO THREE Policy Center has released  Supporting Babies Through QRIS: A Self-Assessment Tool for U.S. States and Other Jurisdictions. The tool is designed to help states and other jurisdictions identify strengths, opportunities, and gaps that exist in a coordinated system of quality improvement for programs serving infants, toddlers, and their families. A webinar about the tool will take place on Tuesday, November 18, 2014 at 2 pm ET.   REGISTER HERE 

New Research
Summarizing the Research on Dual Language Learners


Research efforts are advancing our knowledge of just how different DLLs' linguistic and academic paths are. This research should inform the policies that govern DLLs' educational experiences. The most recent edition of Early Childhood Research Quarterly (ECRQ) has several useful reviews of recent research on dual language learners.  

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