Fall 2012 Issue #48
With the recent wrap-up of our first annual Watershed and Stormwater Conference, our staff are in need of a long beach vacation. Instead, we've been wrapping up projects such as the District of Columbia Stormwater Guidebook, releasing the Fall 2012 issue of the Watershed Science Bulletin on Watershed Planning, and planning for next year's conference. A lucky few have even been constructing rain gardens on tropical islands in the Pacific.
We want to extend a heartfelt thank you to everyone who helped to make the conference a success, and to all who came to party with us at the gala. The gala was a chance to celebrate the Center's 20th anniversary, with a theme of "Welcome to the watershed, Hon." The word "Hon" is a term of endearment (short for Honey), that embodies the warmth and affection bestowed upon our neighbors and visitors alike by native Baltimoreans. Hons have a very...unique way of dressing, as demonstrated by our Executive Director, Hye Yeong Kwon.
If you missed this event, consider attending next year when we move to a new (TBD) location. A discount on conference registration is offered to AWSPs members as part of the membership benefits package.
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Rambling Across Virginia
by Laurel Woodworth
It's been four months now since I finished my five-week trek across Virginia, my home state. In that amount of time I still have not found a good way to summarize the events or the feelings that I experienced during my trip. I hope these photos will help to capture at least some of the scenes I discovered along my 400 mile route, from the Alleghany Plateau in the west, over the Blue Ridge, into the vast Piedmont, and finally across the coastal plain and the Chesapeake Bay.
What I can say, however, is that the adventure offered many lessons. My intent was to learn something about waterways I had not yet seen. On this account, I was not disappointed. It certainly raised my Virginia water IQ. But the trip also provided me with lessons in Virginia history, lessons on travelling by foot and canoe, lessons in geography and geology, and lessons in gratitude.
I had a chance to meet and listen to some incredibly knowledgeable scientists, educators, fishermen, conservationists, and river guides who know their waterways like the back of their hand. One thing I discovered is that without these individuals sharing with me the history and treasures and tribulations of their waterways, I would have only seen what was on the surface as I walked by. Thank goodness for these storytellers, of which you are likely one. Every stream, river, lake, and estuary needs a storyteller and caretaker who can tell us what lies below the surface, the good and the bad, so that they are not ignored as we pass by.
I am grateful for the gift of time and good health that made it possible to take this walk and paddle across Virginia. It felt great to dive into the Atlantic, but truthfully, I was not ready to stop. There is so much to see and learn. Right now I am learning locally, finding out more about Buck Mountain Creek. There is something to appreciate in nature everywhere. I'll soon be ready to put on that backpack and head out again!
For stories behind the photos, click on the photos above, or visit www.walkacrossvirginia.blogspot.com
Have an idea for a Runoff Ramblings topic? Email us at email@example.com.
Managing Runoff on the Pacific Islands
by Dave Hirschman and Sadie Drescher
As some of you consistent Runoff Rundown readers know, we do some of our watershed work on tropical islands. Admittedly, there is a public relations issue with conveying the fact that this is real work, and not just hanging out on the beach. Well. . .you'll just have to trust us on this one, so read below about all the cool (or hot as the case may be) stuff that has been accomplished in 2012.
This work was supported by NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program as follow-up implementation work to last year's Pacific Island Watershed Institute, held during June 2011 on Oahu, Hawaii. At the institute, groups from each participating Pacific island identified high priority watershed and stormwater implementation projects. Follow-up NOAA funding was provided to spur implementation of some of these projects.
All of this work was led by our trusty partner, the Horsley Witten Group, based in Sandwich, MA. The Center worked closely with Horsley Witten to define, plan, and implement several projects in 2012.
Rain Gardens That Get LOTS of Rain
These islands can receive 80 to over 100 inches of rain per year. Seems like a good place for a rain garden! Horsley Witten and Center staff conducted two rain garden clinics - one on the island of Saipan in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) and the other on Guam. The clinics featured a classroom session to review the basic concepts and applications for rain gardens, and (most importantly) hands-on work to install a rain garden.
The Saipan rain garden was installed in April 2012 at the Saipan Museum of History and Culture. The rain garden treats a parking area and travelway as well as some public right-of-way. The Guam rain garden was constructed in September 2012 and captures runoff from a pavilion roof at Santos Memorial Park in the municipality of Piti. The rain garden clinics included representatives from island agencies, NOAA and NRCS, landscape contractors, private citizens and landowners, community groups, and university faculty. Each clinic had about 35 to 40 participants.
Rain garden construction on Saipan
Completed rain garden on Guam
Finding and sourcing locally available materials for the rain gardens required much advance planning by the project partners, mostly the staff from various island environmental agencies. Many of the materials widely available on the mainland, such as compost and sand, can be hard to come by on islands. Interestingly enough, silica-based sand is one of the most difficult materials to find, since most on-island sources of "sand" consist of crushed limestone - which is definitely NOT a rain garden worthy material (being, in fact, Portland cement!). Our island partners had a great time visiting various local plant nurseries, seeking the best match of native and commonly-available plants for the particular rain garden conditions. On both islands, local partners arranged ahead of time to have certain native plants propagated specifically for the rain gardens.
Both clinics also included planning for long-term maintenance, since the success of these demonstration projects depends on maintenance. In both cases, local participants took responsibility for long-term maintenance, and maintenance plans were generated. While most mainland maintenance schedules indicate that mulch should be replaced annually or even semi-annually, we learned on Guam that mulch in the tropical climate can only be expected to last 3 or 4 months! Also, rain gardens can quickly become mini-jungles if there is not a good plan for plant thinning, pruning, and weeding.
We'd like to thank all of our partners who did yeoman's work planning and implementing these rain garden clinics: NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program, CNMI Coastal Resource Management, CNMI DEQ, Guam Coastal Management Program, Guam EPA, and many other local agencies and participants. Also, check out this one-minute video on YouTube featuring the rain garden construction on Guam.
Post-Construction Stormwater With a Little Umu in America Samoa
Building on priorities identified by American Samoa participants at the Pacific Island Watershed Institute, the Horsley Witten/Center team held the first Post-Construction Stormwater Training in America Samoa. Our on-island collaborators at the American Samoa EPA and NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program made sure the right people and groups were invited.
The day and a half long training was held in the Faga'alu Village watershed and about 30 people attended. The Faga'alu Village Management and Conservation Plan (2012) identified trash, sediment, and reduced fisheries as major watershed threats. The Faga'alu Mayor welcomed us to the village, attended the training, and accompanied us in the field. The project partners and the Mayor supported us as we investigated stormwater and watershed solutions. A big part of our success is attributed to the existing community involvement, education, and project partners.
The first training day outlined a need for post-construction stormwater management, provided case study examples, identified existing obstacles, and highlighted post-construction program components for America Samoa. As with other tropical islands, post-construction stormwater takes on new meaning when you have to design for annual rainfall of 70 to 110 inches, which is the case on American Samoa.
As good fortune would have it, a nearby EPA building currently under construction is showcasing several LID practices. This "real world" example drove home the post-construction stormwater training concepts. On day two, we invited everyone to join us in the field. We visited a park, quarry, culverts, and hospital sites. At each site we discussed common field techniques, analyzed site drainage issues and proposed solutions. We identified several stormwater retrofits from the field assessments.
|BMP installation field trip during American Samoa training|
During field work, the teams also assessed a previously-identified major source of sediment in the watershed. Based on this threat, the team quickly developed an erosion and sediment plan to protect the downstream waters, and is now working with the National Fish & Wildlife Foundation on longer term remediation efforts - a good example of watershed planning in action!
As a next step, the findings and recommendations will be vetted with our on-island collaborators. This work will support the existing Faga'alu Plan. American Samoa is a unique landscape and we thank our project partners for their support in ensuring a successful training. Finally, the umu was delicious and we look forward to our next American Samoa adventure!
A "Spongier" DC
By Greg Hoffmann
The District of Columbia is looking to get "spongier."
How? By implementing a new rule that will require nearly all development projects to retain, or soak up, the volume of stormwater from 1.2" of rainfall.
Why? Because when runoff is retained, so are the pollutants associated with it, and reducing stormwater volume will also reduce the erosion of District stream channels. According to the District, this rule will:
"Significantly reduce stormwater pollution flowing into the Anacostia and Potomac Rivers and Rock Creek, and other District waterbodies by making the District spongier and better mimicking how the vegetated natural environment captures and uses rainwater and allows it to soak into the soil."
The 1.2" retention rule was influenced by the Runoff Reduction Method, developed by the Center for Watershed Protection (CWP), the Chesapeake Stormwater Network and Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. The 1.2" rainfall was mandated by the District's MS4 Permit as the regulatory event which equates to the 90th percentile storm event, i.e., in any given year, approximately 90% of the rain events in the District will total 1.2" or less. Accordingly, if a site has the capacity to retain a 1.2" storm event, it will retain approximately 90% of the rainfall that occurs throughout the year. The assumption is that by retaining such a high percentage of stormwater volume, much of the pollutants associated with the stormwater will be retained as well. This philosophy has allowed the District to venture away from regulating specific pollutants, such as sediment, phosphorus, or nitrogen, and simplify the rules.
CWP has been working with the District to answer the question of how a site can achieve the 1.2" retention standard. Relying on data in the Runoff Reduction Method technical memorandum (Hirschman et al., 2008), specifications developed in other Chesapeake Bay jurisdictions, and the knowledge and experience of staff at the District Department of the Environment (DDOE), CWP led the update of the District's Stormwater Management Guidebook. With the new retention standard came a need for new BMPs to be added to the Guidebook. It is important to note that these BMPs are not solely reliant on infiltration, which can be difficult to accomplish in the highly impervious District (43% of District's land area is impervious). Canopy interception, evaporation, transpiration, harvesting, and extended filtration also contribute to stormwater retention. CWP added urban-focused state-of-the-science specifications for green roofs, permeable pavement, bioretention, rainwater harvesting, downspout disconnection, proprietary practices, and tree planting/preservation to provide a wide range of options for meeting the 1.2" retention standard. CWP also developed spreadsheet design tools such as the Stormwater Compliance Calculator and the Cistern Design spreadsheet to aid developers and reviewers in showing compliance with the retention rules. The Stormwater Compliance Calculator provides a space for all of the BMPs used on a site to be tallied in terms of their retention performance, while the Cistern Design spreadsheet focuses specifically on sizing requirements and the associated retention value for rainwater harvesting.
One of the unique features of the stormwater retention rules and guidebook is the Stormwater Retention Credit (SRC) program. This program, developed by DDOE, acknowledges the fact that retention can be especially difficult and expensive for certain urban developments, and it also recognizes the many opportunities for retention retrofits in the heavily paved District. Therefore, rather than meeting all of its retention requirements on site, a development would be allowed to meet up to half of its retention requirements through the purchase of SRCs. One SRC equates to one gallon of stormwater retained for one year. SRCs can be accumulated by virtually any property in the District by providing more retention volume than is required for a development project or by retrofitting an existing development with retention BMPs. The SRCs generated each year can then be banked for future use or sold to sites that have not achieved their full retention requirements.
Though water quality trading programs exist across the nation, it is believed the District will be the first jurisdiction to operate a market-based trading program in the context of its stormwater management regulations. While the desirability or fairness of a trading program is certainly a debatable topic (see Runoff Ramblings: The Old Question of Farms versus Towns: Who Should Be Responsible For Reducing Pollutant Loads in our Watersheds?), and implementation of the SRC program will considerably increase the workload for DDOE, the hope is that by creating an SRC trading market, the cost of compliance with the retention requirements will be reduced, and there will be a strong economic incentive to retrofit existing developments in the District. Further, the trading program may actually lead to a greater overall volume of runoff being retained in the District. For example, if a development chooses to meet the minimum retention requirement on site with a BMP that retains 0.6", and purchase SRCs for the remaining retention requirement, that means another site in the District will also be constructing a BMP that provides the equivalent of 0.6" of retention. This means that a greater area will be "treated" by retention BMPs. Since smaller rain events happen more frequently than large ones, the 0.6" retention BMPs will fill up more frequently, and on an annual basis, more runoff will be retained. For more information on the SRC program, see Brian Van Wye's article Making Stormwater Retrofits Pay in WE&T magazine.
The updates to the stormwater rules and the associated Stormwater Management Guidebook represent big changes for the way development will happen in the District. In an effort to alleviate uncertainty about these changes and get everyone ready to take them on, CWP and DDOE are providing training sessions for the groups that will be most affected. Introductory training sessions have been held for many of the District agencies, such as the Department of Transportation and the Water and Sewer Authority, to show how they will be affected by the stormwater changes. More detailed training sessions have also been held for engineers, developers, site plan reviewers, and inspectors, who will be implementing BMPs in the Stormwater Management Guidebook, and need to be very familiar with the practice specifications. Sessions focused on SRC certification and trading have also been held.
The stormwater rule and guidebook were published in August 2012, and are available for public comment until November 8, 2012. The proposed rule, draft guidebook, training presentations, and related information can be found on the DDOE webpage. The rules and guidebook are scheduled to take effect in July 2013.
Hirschman, D., Collins, K., and T. Schueler. 2008. Technical Memorandum: The Runoff Reduction Method. Center for Watershed Protection and Chesapeake Stormwater Network. Ellicott City, MD.
Watershed Science Bulletin Call for Articles on Economics & Financing (Deadline: April 5, 2013)
Watershed Science Bulletin (The Bulletin) is the journal of the Association of Watershed and Stormwater Professionals (AWSPs). This peer-reviewed journal is published semiannually and features practical, science-based solutions to important watershed and stormwater management issues.
AWSPs is currently soliciting short articles (5,000 words or less) for the Fall 2013 issue of The Bulletin, which focuses on the economics and financing of watershed and stormwater projects and programs. The needs for stormwater and watershed protection and restoration often outstrip the funds available to support existing endeavors let alone implement new ones. At the same time, estimates of the costs associated with implementing and maintaining these programs and projects can be highly variable and uncertain due to limited available data sets, especially for newer practices. Equitable and sustainable financing options are required for local governments to meet the growing regulatory and service demands within their communities, while better data and tools are needed to develop reliable estimates of the cost of protecting and restoring our water resources.
The deadline for article submission is Friday, April 5, 2013. Please see the Instructions for Authors for article submission guidance.
The Online Watershed Library is Open!
The Online Watershed Library (OWL) is a service provided by the Association of Watershed and Stormwater Professionals (AWSPs) that allows practitioners to readily access Center for Watershed Protection and other watershed and stormwater resources to support the development and improvement of local programs. OWL is a searchable, online database of research, stormwater and watershed manuals and plans, assessment tools, and regulatory information. A monthly special feature of "hot topics" highlights innovative and up-and coming information to keep practitioners apprised of the latest stormwater and watershed issues. Users may also submit materials for inclusion in the OWL. OWL was developed to be a time-saver for watershed and stormwater practitioners as it provide users access to a well-organized database of relevant and up-to-date information.
|Trainings and Conferences
Customizing Your Stormwater BMP Design for Specific Pollutants
Wednesday, December 12, 2012, 12-2pm Eastern
Cost: $149 - Registration opens 10/29/12 and closes 12/07/12
Earlybird discount - Register by 11/23/12 and pay $139
Stormwater design requires specializing and customizing. This is due in part to TMDLs that specify a particular pollutant of concern (e.g., bacteria, nutrients, sediment) or parts of the country or world that have unique considerations (e.g., coastal waters, cold-water fisheries). This webcast will describe how stormwater BMP designs are being adapted to remove particular pollutants. We will review the research on pollutant-specific removal pathways and provide case studies and resources for designing pollutant-targeting BMPs.
Findings from the Enabling Source Water Protection Project
October 30 and November 15, 2012
Free Webinar Series
October 30 - Successful state agency efforts to support and coordinate with local planning activities. We will discuss efforts in North Carolina, Ohio, and Maine to coordinate with local planning activities. We will highlight North Carolina's newly formed North Carolina Source Water Collaborative as well as their involvement in the Greater Triangle Stewardship Awards Program. From Ohio, we will learn about the Balanced Growth program, a voluntary watershed-based planning effort designed to prevent flood damage and protect water quality. The Maine Saco River Corridor Commission will be featured as an example of a special planning authority devoted to improving water quality. Time: 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM EDT
November 15 - Incorporate Source Water Protection in State Economic Strategies. Examples from Maine, New York and Ohio will be featured. Improved economic and fiscal performance is one of the strongest arguments for protecting sources of drinking water. Representatives from these states will discuss how focusing on the economics is helping them to work with new partners in new ways. Time: 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM EST
8th Annual California Stormwater Association Conference: Solving the Stormwater Compliance Puzzle
November 5-7, 2012
San Diego, CA
We all know that keeping up with all of the latest stormwater information and regulations can be challenging. To help us navigate this compliance puzzle, the California Stormwater Quality Association (CASQA) has planned another great program with experts in the stormwater field that will present training workshops and technical presentations. This year we have also included a special track on the Clean Water Act to help commemorate its 40th anniversary. The program will feature a full day of in-depth workshops (November 5) and two full days of concurrent session presentations (November 6 and 7), geared towards improving stormwater management knowledge and enhancing stormwater permit compliance. Presentations on November 6 and 7 are grouped into 11 thematic tracks:
Clean Water Act
Construction General Permit
Industrial General Permit
Modifying Public Behavior
Regulations, Permits and Policies
TMDLs in MS4 Permits
True Source Control
AWSPs members save on registration- click here for discount code
21st Annual ELI Eastern Boot Camp on Environmental Law®
November 14-16, 2012
ELI's Boot Camp course is led by approximately 20 carefully selected senior practitioners and environmental managers. This year's topics included: the Clean Air Act; resource conservation and recovery; natural resources damages; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, federal chemical regulation, the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, ethical issues in environmental law, civil and criminal enforcement, and a panel discussion on the legal issues surrounding hydraulic fracturing in the Marcellus Shale.
Partners in Community Forestry National Conference
November 14-15, 2012
Community forests continue to play an increasingly powerful role in the health and sustainability of our cities, towns and rural landscapes. The Partners Conference serves as the annual learning and networking opportunity for all who impact community trees and offers diverse presentations on sustainable partnerships and collaboration models. This year's event will also feature several affiliated meetings and trainings, including:
- ACTrees Day by The Alliance for Community Trees, Tuesday, November 13
- The Society of Municipal Arborists Workshops, Monday, November 12, and Annual Conference, Tuesday, November 13
- Utility Arborist Association Meeting and Training, Tuesday, November 13
- The Continental Dialogue, Tuesday, November 13
2013 Watershed Congress
March 9, 2013
The Delaware Riverkeeper Network is pleased to announce the Call for Presenters for the 2013 Watershed Congress along the Schuylkill. The Watershed Congress has evolved over 15 years to advance the best available information and techniques for protecting and restoring watersheds. The 2013 Watershed Congress will be held at the Montgomery County Community College-West Campus in Pottstown, Pennsylvania. Submissions are due by 5:00 PM, Wednesday, October 31st, 2012.
River Rally 2013
May 17-20, 2013
St. Louis, MO
River Rally attracts a great diversity of conservation leaders, bringing new ideas for the best water resource protection strategies to participants. River Rally 2013 will have a special focus on environmental justice and human health issues (as they relate to our water resources). Event organizers expect more than 400 clean water advocates from across the country, and River Rally provides an excellent opportunity to share your experience with a broad audience.
International Congress for Conservation Biology
July 21-25, 2013
The Society for Conservation Biology is seeking proposals for symposia, workshops, focus groups and short courses now through October 31, 2012 for the 2013 International Congress for Conservation Biology (ICCB). "Connecting Systems, Disciplines and Stakeholders" is the theme for the Congress, which will feature cutting edge symposia, workshops, posters, and focus groups; countless networking opportunities, fantastic field trips, and world-renowned speakers. Proposals must be submitted online.
2013 International Low Impact Development Symposium
August 18-21, 2013
Saint Paul, MN
The 2013 International Low Impact Development (LID) Symposium is being hosted in the Midwestern United States through a collaborative effort between many states, universities, and organizations. From the Great Lakes to the Mississippi Watershed, every state in the Midwestern United States is addressing urban water quality issues from combined sewer overflows to stormwater runoff. The 2013 International LID Symposium will bring together over 1,000 professionals to share their research, implementation, policy, financing, and education strategies to build and restore cities while protecting our environment.
August 18-22, 2013
Myrtle Beach, SC
Stormwater management is a fast-changing discipline and StormCon is the only professional conference and exposition where you can learn about the latest stormwater program management innovations, BMPs performance case studies, research, technology, and services. Take advantage of StormCon's early bird registration rates and register today.
" Cool Links" provides information on some new and new-found resources that are helpful to watershed managers and stormwater professionals.
Illicit Discharge Detection and Elimination Program Self Assessment Tool
One of the main challenges for an Illicit Discharge Detection & Elimination (IDDE) program is to assess the program's existing status and map out a future course and program direction. The Center for Watershed Protection has developed an assessment tool that is designed to assist program managers with this task. The desired outcome for conducting this self-assessment is to generate short-term and long term action items to build a more effective program. This new tool is available under IDDE Program Info on the Online Watershed Library.
Stormwater Innovations: Two-Minute Video Series
The Water Environment Research Federation invited several public agency representatives to participate in a "two-minute video" project on innovative stormwater practices by sharing highlights from their stormwater programs- anything from new BMPs, green infrastructure and technology to codes, permitting and policies, to financing, planning and public education. In this series, the Center's own Lori Lilly talks about illicit sewage discharges and Bryan Seipp discusses urban forestry solutions.
Fairness in the Bay: Environmental Justice and Nutrient Trading
Can we afford to ignore the potential impact of nutrient trading on low income and minority communities? The Center for Progressive Reform addresses this question in a new report, funded by the Abell Foundation.
Economic Value of Protected Open Space in Southeastern Pennsylvania
The GreenSpace Alliance and the Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission recently released the Economic Value of Protected Open Space in Southeastern Pennsylvania Report. The findings are the first to quantify the economic value of protected open space in the five-county area. More than just pretty places, preserved open spaces contribute to our local economies and property values, they help us save on everything from health care to recreation, and they perform valuable ecosystem services that naturally improve the air we breathe and the water we drink.
Chesapeake Bay Program Stormwater Videos
What happens to stormwater runoff after it rains?
We asked people in York, Pennsylvania what happens to stormwater runoff after it rains. Do you know the answer?
From the Field: Restoring Washington, D.C.'s urban streams
Peter Hill and Stephen Reiling from the District Department of the Environment take us on a tour of two successful stream restoration projects in Washington, D.C., and explain why controlling polluted stormwater runoff from cities is so important to Chesapeake Bay restoration.
Bay 101: Stormwater Runoff
Mike Fritz of the Chesapeake Bay Program explains why stormwater runoff is a major source of pollution to the Chesapeake Bay. Where does all that stormwater go? What goes along with it? Find out here, and learn what we need to do to prevent stormwater runoff from polluting the Bay.
Urban Homeowner Outreach Toolkit
A new toolkit from EPA and the Anacostia Watershed Outreach and Education Project is a resource for watershed organizations and others who encourage homeowners to install rain barrels to prevent contamination in their local rivers. The toolkit includes details on the development of social marketing outreach to local residents, lessons learned and a summary of project accomplishments. Appendices include communication scripts for weathercasters, a detailed list of project partners, partnerships, and photos and screenshots of the messages used.
Report from Roundtable on Achieving Hazard-Resilient Coastal & Waterfront Smart Growth
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have released Achieving Hazard-Resilient Coastal & Waterfront Smart Growth: Coastal and Waterfront Smart Growth and Hazard Mitigation Roundtable Report. The report presents an overview of a 2011 meeting where experts from the fields of smart growth, hazard mitigation, climate change adaptation, and coastal management shared ideas on how coastal and waterfront communities could improve quality of life, use land and other resources efficiently, and create environmentally and economically sustainable neighborhoods while minimizing risks from natural hazards related to coastal and waterfront flooding. The report provides ideas for further research, tool and services development, and approaches that federal agencies, state partners, academics, organizations, and practitioners working on these issues could consider to improve integration of the smart growth and hazard mitigation strategies along the coast.
Handbook for Land Trusts on Wetland and Stream Mitigation
The Environmental Law Institute and the Land Trust Alliance announce the release of a new resource - Wetland and Stream Mitigation: A Handbook for Land Trusts - which was designed to provide land trusts with a starting point for understanding the opportunities and liabilities associated with taking on a compensatory mitigation project. The handbook provides readers with:
- Background on Section 404 of the Clean Water Act
- An overview of the different phases of a compensatory mitigation project
- A discussion of the different roles that a land trust can play in compensatory mitigation
- A framework for land trusts to assess their participation in a compensatory mitigation project
- Technical guides on site protection instruments, long-term management plans, and long-term financing mechanisms
Runoff Rundown Team:
Karen Cappiella (editor), Sadie Drescher, Katrina Harrison, David Hirschman, Greg Hoffmann, Erin Johnson, Hye Yeong Kwon, and Laurel Woodworth
If you have suggestions for future Runoff Rundown content, or would like to contribute an article, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org