here is only one defense - a defense compounded of eternal vigilance, sound policies, and high courage"
- stated Secretary of State John Foster Dulles
to the Overseas Press Club in New York, March 30, 1954.John Foster Dulles
was born FEBRUARY 25, 1888, in the home of his Civil War general grandfather. His father was a Presbyterian pastor. John Foster Dulles
graduated from Princeton, studied law at George Washington University, and was an Army Major in WWI.
He was elected a U.S. Senator and was appointed by President Wilson as legal counsel to the U.S. delegation at the 1918 Versailles Peace Conference. John Foster Dulles
was foreign policy adviser to New York Governor Thomas Dewey in his campaigns for President in 1944 and 1948.
He took an active role in establishing the Republican plank calling for the establishment of a Jewish commonwealth in Palestine. John Foster Dulles
stated at Indiana University, June 13, 1955:
"Our people have always been endowed with a sense of mission in the world. They have believed that it was their duty to help men everywhere to get the opportunity to be and do what God designed." Dulles
was an adviser to President Truman, voicing his opposition to the U.S. dropping the atomic bomb on Japan, stating:"If we, as a professedly Christian nation
, feel morally free to use atomic energy in that way, men elsewhere will accept that verdict.
Atomic weapons will be looked upon as a normal part of the arsenal of war and the stage will be set for the sudden and final destruction of mankind." Dulles'
reference to the U.S as "a professedly Christian nation"
is reflected in it being among the countries with the highest number of individuals who identify themselves as Christian:
United States = 246.8 million
Brazil = 175.8 million
Mexico = 107.8 million
Russia = 105.2 million
Philippines = 86.8 million
Nigeria = 80.5 million
China = 67 million
Democratic Republic of Congo = 63.2 million
Germany = 58.2 million
Ethiopia = 52.6 million.
The Pew Research Center 2012 reported:Christianity
is the largest religion in the world, comprising 31.5 percent of the global population; Islam
is second with 23.2 percent; followed by Unaffiliated
16.3 percent; Hinduism
15 percent; Buddhism
7.1 percent; Folk religions
5.9 percent; Other
0.8 percent; and Judaism
The Pew Foundation reported:
"The number of Christians around the world has nearly quadrupled in the last 100 years, from 600 million in 1910."
This makes Christianity the fastest growing religion
, with nearly 70,000 added each day
, mostly in Africa, India, Asia, and the Middle East. Christians
is also the most persecuted religion
, with over 500 being martyred each day
, mostly in Africa, India, Asia and the Middle East.
The British House of Commons was informed in December 2013, that a Christian is killed every 11 minutes
. Christians experience persecution in 130 of the 197 countries in world, especially in Muslim
countries, such as:
Syria, Eritrea, Nigeria, Pakistan, Malaysia, Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Pakistan, Somalia, Afghanistan, Iraq and Egypt; and Communist countries, such as China and North Korea.
When the Soviet Union detonated an atomic bomb in 1949, John Foster Dulles
became convinced that the U.S. needed a nuclear arsenal to deter Communist expansion, as he stated April 11, 1955:
"Men face the great dilemma of whether to use force to resist aggression which imposes conditions which violate the moral law and the concept that man has his origins and his destiny in God."
Dulles negotiated the Peace Treaty with Japan. In a toast to Japanese Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles
stated September 3, 1955:
"War is an awful thing. God grant that we have seen the last of it. But war in this case made the people of our two countries know each other as never before."
He was instrumental in the creation of the United Nations, to which he was the U.S. Ambassador, 1945-49, and served under President Eisenhower as U.S. Secretary of State. Three Secular Reasons Why America Should Be Under God
On April 11, 1955, John Foster Dulles
addressed the Fifth Annual All-Jesuit Alumni Dinner:
"Peace is a goal which men above always sought. It is a goal which we particularly think of at this Easter Season when we commemorate the resurrection of the Prince of Peace.
At the 1954 Geneva Conference, Dulles
reportedly refused to shake hands with the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, Zhou Enlai, as he had been instrumental in consolidating control under Mao Zedong's Communist Party, whose policies resulted in an estimated 80 million deaths. John Foster Dulles
referred to Communism as "godless terrorism," stating at the Jesuit Alumni Dinner, April 11, 1955:
"Man, we read in the Holy Scriptures, was made a little lower than the angels. Should man now be made little higher than domesticated animals which serve the purpose of their human masters?"
In 1955, Dulles
was named Man of the Year in Time Magazine
and in 1959, he was awarded the Medal of Freedom.
"The government of the United States...was founded as an experiment in human liberty," Dulles
explained April 11, 1955, continuing:
"Our institutions reflect the belief of our founders that all men were endowed by their Creator with inalienable rights and had duties prescribed by moral law.
They believed that human institutions ought primarily to help men develop their God-given possibilities and that our nation, by its conduct and example, could help men everywhere to find the way to a better and more abundant life.
Our nation...developed...spiritual and economic vigor the like of which the world had never seen." Dulles International Airport
near Washington, D.C., is named for him.
His son, John W.F. Dulles was a history professor at the University of Texas at Austin; his daughter, Lillias Hinshaw, was a Presbyterian minister; and another son, Avery Dulles, became the first American priest to be directly appointed a Cardinal.
On May 7, 1954, in reply to a question from a Danish student, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles
"Neighborly love, in political actions, means loving others, based on the brotherhood that was created with God as the Father of all.
It means that the political power of any government must be considered an opportunity, not to favor individuals but to do well for all."
Secretary of State John Foster Dulles
"Our institutions of freedom will not survive unless they are constantly replenished by the faith that gave them birth.
Our greatest need is to regain confidence in our spiritual heritage."