ndian Policy in the Americas has gone through several general phases:
1) Spanish Enslavement & French Evangelization
2) Treaties, Land Encroachment, & Wars
3) Indian Removal
When Muslims conquered Constantinople in 1453, they cut off the land routes
to India and China
In 1492, Spanish monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella drove Muslims out of Spain and then sent Columbus to find a sea route
to India and China
Columbus sailed west and thought he had found India
, so he named the native inhabitants 'Indian'
Spain sent conquistadors to explore for treasures, ie:
Ponce de León (1513, 1521),
Desoto (1539-1542), and
Spaniards conquered Indians by siding with oppressed minorities against the ruling class, thus creating a tumult which allowed them to take complete control.
Indians in Latin and South America were enslaved in large numbers.
This was justified by a Spanish humanist named Sepúlveda who argued Indians were less than human.
A Spanish Catholic priest, Bartolomé de las Casas, defended that Indians were indeed human and pressured the King of Spain to issue New Laws ending slavery.
Though conquistadors were motivated by GREED, missionaries like Bartolome de las Casas were motivated by the GOSPEL.
Once enslavement of Indians was outlawed, greedy Spanish plantation owners began purchasing African slaves from Muslim slave markets and bringing them to the New World.
In North America, the French arrived in Canada beginning with Jacques Cartier's voyages (1534-1542).
French fur trappers enjoyed good relations with Indians and French missionaries, such as Pere Jacques Marquette, evangelized Indians.
English settlers landed in Virginia in 1607 and had tense relations with Indians.
Pilgrims settled in Massachusetts and honored a long-lasting treaty with the Indians, beginning with Governor John Carter and Chief Massasoit.
Chief Massaoit died and his son, Philip, became chief in 1662.
Massachusetts' new Govenor, Josiah Winslow, did not maintain good relations with the Indians and King Philip's War broke out (1675-1678). Get the book, American Minute-Notable Events of American Significance Remembered on the Date They Occurred
When war erupted between the two biggest global powers, France and England, it resulted in the French and Indian War in America (1754-1763).
At this time, Colonel George Washington built Fort Necessity on Great Meadows in 1754. He received a letter from his brother Lawrence's father-in-law, Mr. William Fairfax:
"I will not doubt your having public prayers in the camp, especially when the Indian families are your guests, that they, seeing your plain manner of worship, may have their curiosity excited to be informed why we do not use the ceremonies of the French, which being well explained to their understandings, will more and more dispose them to receive our baptism, and unite in strict bonds of cordial friendship."
When France lost the war, all French territory east of the Mississippi was ceded to Britain, and Indians who had sided with the French also lost land.
During the Revolutionary War, General George Washington was visited at his Middle Brook military encampment on May 12, 1779, by Delaware Indian Chiefs who brought three youths. Washington assured them:
"Brothers: I am glad you have brought three of the Children of your principal Chiefs to be educated with us. I am sure Congress will open the Arms of love to them, and will look upon them as their own Children, and will have them educated accordingly.
This is a great mark of your confidence and of your desire to preserve the friendship between the Two Nations to the end of time, and to become One people with your Brethren of the United States...."
"You do well to wish to learn our arts and ways of life, and above all, the religion of Jesus Christ. These will make you a greater and happier people than you are.
Congress will do everything they can to assist you in this wise intention; and to tie the knot of friendship and union so fast, that nothing shall ever be able to loose it...
And I pray God He may make your Nation wise and strong."
After the Revolution, George Washington retired to Mount Vernon where he wrote to the President of the Continental Congress, February 8, 1785:
"Toward the latter part of the year 1783, I was honored with a letter from the Countess of Huntington, briefly reciting her benevolent intention of spreading Christianity among the Tribes of Indians inhabiting our Western Territory;
and expressing a desire of my advice and assistance to carry this charitable design into execution.
I wrote her Ladyship...that I would give every aid in my power, consistent with the ease and tranquility, to which I meant to devote the remainder of my life, to carry her plan into effect...
Her Ladyship has spoken so feelingly and sensibly, on the religious and benevolent purposes of the plan, that no language of which I am possessed, can add aught to enforce her observations."
President Washington addressed Congress, November 6, 1792:
"Laws will expire during the present session. Among these, that which regulates trade...with the Indian tribes...
Your common deliberations...will, I trust, be productive...to our constituents...by conciliating more and more their ultimate suffrage...and confirm their attachment to that Constitution...upon which, under Divine Providence, materially depend...their happiness."
On AUGUST 29, 1796, President George Washington dictated a "Talk" to the Cherokee Nation:
"Beloved Cherokees: The wise men of the United States meet once a year, to consider what will be for the good of all their people...
I have thought that a meeting of your wise men once or twice a year would be alike useful to you...
I now send my best wishes to the Cherokees, and pray the Great Spirit to preserve them." America's God and Country Encyclopedia of Quotations
After the Revolutionary War, and later after the War of 1812, Indians who had sided with the British lost more land.
When gold was discovered in Georgia in 1828, greed caused encroachment onto Indian lands.
The solution proposed by Democrat President Jackson and the Democrat-controlled Congress was the Indian Removal Act of 1830.
The Federal Government forced thousands of Indians to migrate on the Trail of Tears to Oklahoma.
Republican President Ulysses S. Grant ended the removal policy and began the reservation policy, encouraging Christian missions among the Indians.
In 1887, the Federal Government attempted a big government solution with the Dawes Act to have Indians assimilate by taking children away from their families and educating them in a Federal common-core type program.
When it was discovered that Indian Reservations had valuable resources of oil, gas, minerals, and gold, greedy politicians found ways to take more of their land.
The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 was supposed to give Indians more control over their lives but ironically resulted in the Federal Government getting more involved in internal tribal affairs.
A Relocation Program in the 1950's brought tens of thousands of Indians into inner cities for low-wage jobs and more tribal lands were transferred to private ownership.
Republican President Nixon repudiated this policy and instituted laws bolstering tribal sovereignty, though this sovereignty was gradually eroded by state and local jurisdictions.
With the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988, casinos, bingo halls, and other gambling operations on Indian reservations have increased to include 460 gambling operations in 2011, run by 240 tribes, with total annual revenue of $27 billion.
In recent years, Muslims have made inroads onto Indian Reservations.
In 2006, Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan visited the Navajo Nation in Arizona.
In 2012, U.S. Rep. Tom Cole R-Okla, introduced a bill to allow Muslims from Turkey special access to Indians, stating:
"I was approached by the Turkish Coalition of America who have a deep interest in Turkey and American Indians... Turkey's continued interest in expanding business and cultural ties with the American Indian community...across the U.S."
John Berrey, chairman of the Quapaw Tribe (Oklahoma), claimed:
"The Turkish and Native American peoples are beginning to come together under their own momentum to develop broader and deeper economic and cultural ties."
Beginning in 2008, the Turkish Coalition of America has awarded scholarships for Native American students to study abroad in Turkey.
The Turkish Coalition of America spent millions flying Native American tribal leaders to Turkey, as reported on its 2010 IRS Form 990: "sponsorship of educational travel for congressional members and staff as well as Native American leaders."
The Indian Country Today Media Network
"The first Native American Business Cooperation Trip to Turkey, attracting 20 leaders from 17 Native American tribes...met with Turkish high officials, including Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu," as reported by the Associated Press
. Get the DVD Islamic Conquest - Past and Present
In 2011, Turkey's deputy minister for foreign trade was the first foreign government official ever to address the American Indian Business Trade Fair and the Reservation Economic Summit (RES) in Las Vegas.
Turkey's advances into the Native American tribes are promoted by Turkish Prime Minister Erdogan and his Islamist Justice and Development party (AKP) who have been moving Turkey towards being an Islamic State.
Erdogan is reportedly positioning himself to be considered as the caliph of the reemerging Islamic Caliphate.
The Agence France-Presse
reported Turkish businesses are acting as a front for Islamist extremists:
"Turkish companies of creating a shadow economy, using double accounting and propagating nationalistic and extremist ideology...
Long wary of the influence of Islamic fundamentalism ... secular authorities appear to be linking Turkish private business to the activities of the Nurcus, an Islamic group that is banned in the country."
Indian reservations along America's southern borders, such at the Tohono, are being overrun by illegals which include drug gangs infiltrated by Islamic groups, such as ISIS, Hamas, and Hezbollah.
The Arizona desert is littered with Islamic prayer rugs, Qur'ans, Spanish-Arabic dictionaries, Pakistani Urdu-English dictionaries, even an Iranian book celebrating suicide bombers.
Illegal OTM's (Other Than Mexicans) include Muslims from Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Egypt, Pakistan, Yemen, Qatar, Algeria, Somalia, Malaysia, Libya, Eritrea, Indonesia, Lebanon, and the Philippines.
Executive action is being considered to increase immigration.