Updates from The SOURCE on Community College  
Issues, Trends & Strategies
Published by
The Roueche Graduate Center, National American University
in partnership with Lorenzo Associates, Inc.

"To be yourself in a world that is constantly trying to make you something else 
 is the greatest accomplishment."  - Ralph Waldo Emerson 
Volume 6, Issue 9 - May 1, 2016    

In This Issue
04/28/2016: Community Colleges Are New Gateways to Hot Cybersecurity Jobs, by George Lorenzo, EdSurge - For an effective, affordable and flexible educational pathway into a cybersecurity job, students of all ages and backgrounds are increasingly enrolling in community college degree and certificate cybersecurity programs across the country. Many of these programs got their start through the developmental support offered through five security technology centers and projects sponsored by the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Advanced Technology Education (ATE) initiative.

04/20/2016: When 16-Year-Olds Go to College, by Ruth Hammond, The Chronicle of Higher Education - We find that for many students, by the time they reach the end of 10th or 11th grade, they are ready for more. Many of our students have already exhausted the most challenging curriculum in their home school and their high school, and they're looking for something else. They don't always know what that something else is. - Ian Bickford, provost of Bard College at Simon's Rock.

04/20/2016: New Study Abroad Population, by Ashley A. Smith, Inside Higher Ed - There's pressure among community colleges to maintain their enrollments as well as retain students and find unique ways to get them to completion. A few two-year institutions have been promoting study abroad for years, but others are now considering these types of programs as a way to help boost their students' experiences.

04/19/2016: Indicators of Higher Education Equity: 2016 Historical Trend Report, by Margaret Cahalan, Laura Perna, Mika Yamashita, Roman Ruiz and Khadish Franklin, The Pell Institute - The 2015 Indicators Report focused on equity in higher education based on measures of family income, and this measure remains the primary focus of the 2016 edition. However, in recognition of the need to address inequity based on other demographic characteristics, the 2016 edition also includes selected tables that look at differences by race/ethnicity and family socioeconomic status (SES), an index comprised of income, education, and occupation developed by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) for use in the high school longitudinal studies.

04/2016: Pathways to New Accountability Through the Every Student Succeeds Act, by Linda Darling-Hammond, Soung Bae, Channa M. Cook-Harvey, Livia Lam, Charmaine Mercer, Anne Podolsky, and Elizabeth Leisy Stosich, Learning Policy Institute - This paper examines the options available to states to redefine their accountability systems as they begin to implement the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). The new law provides the possibility that states can create more balanced systems of support and accountability focused on educating young people so they can become productive, engaged citizens who are prepared for 21st century college and careers.  

04/2016: Looking Inside the Black Box of Performance Funding for Higher Education: Policy Instruments, Organizational Obstacles, and Intended and Unintended Impacts, by Kevin Dougherty, Sosanya Jones, Hana Lahr, Rebecca Natow, Lara Pheatt and Vikash Reddy, Community College Research Center (CCRC) - In recent years, performance funding - which directly connects state funding to an institution's performance on indicators such as student persistence, credit accrual, and college completion - has become a particularly attractive way of pursuing better college outcomes. But even as states have made an enormous investment in performance funding, troubling questions have been raised about whether performance funding has the effects intended and whether it also produces substantial negative side effects in the form of restrictions in access for underrepresented students and weakening of academic standards.

04/2016: Promising Practices, Workforce Strategies Initiative (WSI) - Promising Practices is a group of three briefing reports aimed at leaders in community colleges and the workforce development field. These reports highlight innovative capacity-development initiatives that increase the ability for students - especially low-income and traditionally underserved students - to access and succeed in programs offered by community colleges.

04/2016: Administrator Leadership and Faculty Support, Magna Publications - Being an academic leader is a tough job. It has gotten more challenging as budgets shrink, public scrutiny rises, and responsibilities continue to grow. One of your most important duties is supporting your faculty. This report features 13 articles that aims to provide guidance on how best to support those teaching your institution's students, day-in and day-out.

03/25/2016: Reflections on Communicating a Vision for iPASS Reforms, by Karen A. Stout, EducauseReview - Since the first round of iPASS reform work, MCCC and the community college field have learned that when implemented properly, iPASS is so much more than even a technology-mediated advising transformation. It is the glue that holds together all of an institution's efforts, so that it can achieve a holistic transformation of the student experience.

03/17/2016: The Cost of Being Decent to Adjuncts, by Colleen Flaherty, Inside Higher Ed - New paper argues that colleges can't afford to improve the pay and working conditions of those off the tenure track. Activists slam the analysis.             
Online Education
04/20/2016: Supply is Up in Online Ed but Demand is Down - Now What?, by Tara García Mathewson, EducationDive - Seventy percent of chief academic officers say online education is going to be a key pillar of their institution's strategy moving forward, and demand for online education programs is growing at a slower rate than at any point in the last 20 years.

04/19/2016: Is Demand High Enough for CBE Expansion?, by Tara García Mathewson, EducationDive - Competency-based programs let students move at their own pace through the content. Students get credit for information they have already mastered by skipping those portions or modules and moving on to new information. Embedding developmental education into the standard course is modeled after corequisite remediation, with which several states have found great success.

College Readiness
04/20/2016: 'Culture of Second Chances' - or Opportunity for Struggling Students?, by Laura Yuen, MPR News - A push in some Minnesota high schools to help every student succeed is prompting some teachers to ask: Is school hard enough? As schools try to close the achievement gap, some educators worry that a shift in grading standards isn't preparing their students for college or the workplace.

03/2016: Redesigning a Student Success Course for Sustained Impact: Early Outcomes Findings, by Melinda Mechur Karp, Julia Raufman, Chris Efthimiou and Nancy Ritze, Community College Research Center (CCRC) - Many community colleges offer a "student success" course - also known as College 101 or Introduction to College - as a means to help incoming students transition to college and become successful. The typical course is meant to provide key information and address important noncognitive skills and behavioral expectations with the goal of familiarizing students with the college environment and giving them the tools they need to build important competencies, persist in college, and earn a credential.

Remedial Education
04/13/2016: Move Away from Algebra Requirement Gaining Momentum, by Karen Matthews, Community College Week - Hacker, a professor emeritus at Queens College, argues that, at most, only 5 percent of jobs make use of algebra and other advanced math courses. He favors a curriculum that focuses more on statistics and basic numbers sense and less on (y - 3)2 (equals) 4y - 12.

04/2016: Is Corequisite Remediation Cost-Effective? Early Findings From Tennessee, by Clive Belfield, Davis Jenkins and Hana Lahr, Community College Research Center (CCRC) - Under the corequisite model, academically unprepared students take entry-level college courses simultaneously with remedial academic support. The corequisite model differs from the conventional approach in which remediation is provided as a prerequisite to college-level coursework.

College Completion
college completion
04/22/2016: Rebate for Completion, by Ashley A. Smith, Inside Higher Ed - Massachusetts is offering money to community college students who enroll full time, finish on time and transfer.

04/19/2016: GOOD BUT NOT GOOD ENOUGH: College Degree Attainment Rises But Not On Track to Meet Lumina Foundation's 2025 Goal of 60 Percent, by Jason Amos, Alliance for Excellent Education - The U.S. degree attainment rate - the percentage of Americans aged twenty-five to sixty-four with a two- or four-year degree - is on the rise, but it is not at the pace necessary to meet a goal that 60 percent of Americans hold degrees, certificates, or high-quality credentials by 2025, according to the most recent of the Lumina Foundation's annual A Stronger Nation report.

Back to 'In This Issue'
Workforce Development
04/25/2016: What Workplaces Gain When They Send Their Employees Back to School, by Mikhail Zinshteyn, The Atlantic - Can a corporation do right by its workers and boost its bottom line? A welter of companies have in the past few years made big media splashes about their programs to underwrite the college educations of their workers. While Starbucks, JetBlue, and Fiat-Chrysler are some of the largest to announce their postsecondary plans for employees, the benefit exists at roughly 60 percent of all U.S. companies.

04/25/2016: Washington State Colleges Struggling to Meet Computer Science Demand, by Tara García Mathewson, EducationDive - Two-year Bellevue College is seeking approval for a bachelor's degree in computer science to help the state's four-year colleges meet demand that so far has made the majors increasingly competitive for students to get into.

Technology Adoption
04/25/2016: Traditional Computers Expected to be Largest Users of Campus Bandwidth, by Tara García Mathewson, EducationDive - More IT leaders believe desktop and laptop computers will be larger consumers of bandwidth on campuses than other devices, including tablets and phones.

04/11/2016: Transforming Institutions, Transforming Lives, by Jennifer Wells, Impatient Optimists - We are seeing the emergence of new technologies and approaches that are showing real results. These include courseware that adjusts to students' needs, boosting student performance and reducing the amount of time needed to master content; integrated planning and advising services that provide "just in time" support to at-risk students, increasing retention and completion rates; and redesigned remedial programs that double pass rates in entry-level courses.

Data Analysis & Assessment
04/21/2016: 8 Ways Wearables are Influencing Higher Ed's Data Use, by Laura Devaney, eCampus News - As data collection becomes more common, how can higher education institutions leverage the availability of real-time data to improve learning?

04/20/2016: Responsible Use of Student Data, by Martin Kurzweil, Ithaka S+R - It can be easy to forget in the bubble of higher education innovation circles, but many, maybe most, institutions of higher education are not systematically using their student data to improve instruction and support. While there is experimentation around the edges, we are not yet seeing a large-scale organized effort that impacts large numbers of students.

04/20/2016: End the Student Data Blackout With a Patchwork of State Data, by Allie Bidwell, National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA) - Data is a powerful tool in the world of higher education. But with the federal government unable to collect certain data points to answer important questions about students, patching together information from state data systems could provide a more comprehensive picture of student outcomes, according to a new brief.

Back to 'In This Issue'
Funding & Economics
04/21/2016: Income-Based Gaps in College Attainment Have Worsened Since 1970, Report Finds, by Catherine Gewertz, Education Week - Students from all socioeconomic groups have been earning bachelor's degrees at increasing rates in recent years, but gaps in college attainment by socioeconomic status have worsened slightly since 1970.

04/21/2016: Who Would Benefit Most from Free College?, by Matthew M. Chingos, Brookings, Economic Studies - This report provides new evidence on which groups of students are likely to benefit the most from a policy that eliminates tuition and fees at public colleges and universities. Using nationally representative data on in-state students at public institutions, I find that students from higher income families would receive a disproportionate share of the benefits of free college, largely because they tend to attend more expensive institutions.

04/19/2016: The Richest 25% of American Families Account for More Than Half of All College Graduates, by Jillian Berman, MarketWatch - Graduating college is much harder if you're poor, a new report indicates. In 2014, just 10% of dependent family members who said they received a bachelor's degree by the time they were 24 years old came from families in the lowest income quartile.

04/2016: On the Verge: Costs and Tradeoffs Facing Community College Students, by Debbie Cochrane and Laura Szabo-Kubitz, The Institute for College Access & Success - Even the most devoted and prepared college students can be slowed or stopped in their tracks by financial obstacles. Whether the challenges are covering basic needs like food or housing, or handling unexpected financial obligations like car repairs or medical bills, there is a growing body of research showing that students' ability to pay for non-tuition costs can make or break their academic career.

Transfer & Articulation
04/2016: How and Why Does Two-Year College Entry Influence Baccalaureate Aspirants’ Academic and Labor Market Outcomes?, by Shanna Smith Jaggars and Jeffrey Fletcher, CAPSEE - We find that the community college pathway sharply reduces the likelihood of earning a bachelor's degree but does not have a significant impact on students' short-term labor market performance.

04/2015: Pathways Unbound: Understanding the Impact of Reverse Transfer on Postsecondary Institutions, National Student Clearinghouse (NSC) and UF, Institute of Higher Education, University of Florida IHE - Overall, most postsecondary institutions indicated that although they were aware of the need to address reverse transfer students, theses institutions indicated the need to execute more effective student communication strategies, create more streamlined mechanisms of data exchange, and develop institutional partnerships.

12/18/2014: Reverse Transfer: Empowering Students to Complete Degrees, by Caroline Miller, Pearson - Dr. David Pelham from the National Student Clearinghouse and Dr. Dale Campbell and Dr. Tina O'Daniels of the Futures Bellwether College Consortium discuss the growing opportunity of reverse transfer and its impact on institutions and students. The context of the conversation in this podcast centers on transferring credits from four-year institutions back to associates degree granting institutions to help a greater number of students attain a higher education credential.

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