E-Village News
Responding to the Call of the Ancestors

January/February 2014
Happy Mineral New Year!!!
Greetings Village!

2014 marks the beginning of a Mineral year in Dagara cosmology!  We hope you'll enjoy the writings and inspirations concerning the element Mineral in this issue of E-Village News.

Peace & Blessings!
Coastal Rocks 
Mineral or Stone
Mineral is the storage place of memory, the principle of creativity, resources, stories, and symbolism.  In the cosmological wheel, mineral is located in the west and is colored white.  It is the elemental energy that allows us to receive messages from the Other World, and to remember our origins and purpose in this life.  These functions are what the human skeletal structure, made of mineral, is all about.  In Dagara physiology, our bones, not the brain, are the storage place of memory.  In the village it is not uncommon to hear an elder say, "This is in our bones as it was in the bones of our ancestors."  In the West there is a similar saying, "I knew it in my bones," which refers to a deeper, more elemental knowing than is possible through rational thought.

To the indigenous person, mineral is also equivalent to stone.  As they say, the bones of the earth are the stones and rocks we see.  To know the true story of our earth, including the story of ourselves, is to listen to the rocks.  They are the conduits through which earth passes information on to us.  Any creature that is born with bones is said to be born already possessing some knowledge.  This is where the indigenous derive their belief that no one comes into this world without a genius, and that this genius must be opened to the person shortly after birth, first through the name, and later on through initiation.  All those in Western culture who wander without purpose are perhaps stripped of their genius and are in exile searching for ways to remember.  These are people in need of mineral rituals, to repair their relationship to memory, which is symbolized in mineral.
Quartz Crystal
Indigenous people think that our bones are the minerals in which we store thousands of years of information.  They store that which we need to remember.  This makes me wonder if many problems of the West are a result of forgetting.  I wonder also if those in Silicon Valley who shave stones to their essence and put them in machines of memory perhaps already know somehow that stones have always managed information.  My sense is that those who experience midlife crises are responding to the pull and push of masses of information they have not been using because they can't fully remember.  For example, if there were a way to help people use the deep memories that they brought with them to this life, it would make a tremendous difference in their sense of direction and purpose.

I wonder also if part of the modern world's fascination with the Internet can be traced to this vast memory gap.  People are searching for something, and when the information stored in our bones is neglected, one feels the urge to go outside the self in search of it.  If the information out there echoes the information inside of us, could it be that the great turmoil of unrecognized wisdom within us is forcing us to race along the information superhighway, hoping that we will discover what we already have?  The proliferation of various software to make the venture even easier would support this thought:  does Windows 95 suggest the promise of a peek into the Other World?

Indigenous people don't learn by looking outside themselves; instead, they learn how to remember the knowledge they already possess.  The person who has a mineral nature speaks a great deal because mineral expresses in discourse what is stored in coded form within the bones.

Mineral people are storytellers, fascinated with myth, tradition, and rituals, versed in dealing with metaphors and symbols.  In Africa, they are the town criers who know what happens now and what has happened for countless generations.  They constantly remind us in stories, proverbs, songs, and poems the deep healing significance of staying connected.  They know how to praise and how to warn.
A culture weighted too heavily with mineral is frenetically involved with communication at every level.  In such a culture, language is an impressive instrument of power.  The problem with such a culture is in finding an audience, or someone to listen.  A mineral person's love for argument, for different ways of saying the same thing, and for eloquent ways of saying nothing can baffle the non-mineral person.  In truth, a mineral person or culture is extroverted, almost bombastic, but almost always has a point.  The gift they present to their society and the world is the gift of remembering, through words and stories, one's origins and purpose.

The Healing Wisdom of Africa
pgs. 177-179

Mineral, Memory, and Collections
A Personal Rock Collection in the West

Westerners often respond to what they hear their bones telling them by collecting and storing various objects.  To the indigenous, watching the objects a person collects provides a clue to what spiritual source a person is drawn toward.  For example, there is a young man in my maternal family who, after his father died, began acting quite unusually.  Not only was he speaking out loud by himself most of the time, refusing human companionship, but he was also quite inexplicably collecting scraps of metal.  The little room he occupied in the compound was crowded with random metal objects, from bicycle parts to old tin cans, radio antennae, and dead light bulbs taken from flashlights.  From these pieces of scrap he made things that appeared to be almost functional.

He would sit alone quietly as if listening to an inner voice, then make a sound of agreement before picking up an item from his junk pile, then listen some more while looking around.  It was obvious that he was being instructed by Spirit about what to collect and what to do with the things he collected.  The results were sometimes amazing.  He was the first in the village to build a shortwave radio---instructed only by Spirit---and he designed a system of electronic circuitry to make his room into a symphony of flashing lights.  He would spend his day mostly listening to the Other World, reporting on what he heard on any subject.

Healers gathered around him and performed a ritual of reconciliation, which allowed him not only to continue making his strange machines, but also, and more important, to use his gift to help other people in need.  He has perfected an ability to listen to what the Spirit says about someone and then to translate the message verbatim to that person.  He has become, in a sense, a radio transmitter for the world of Spirit.

This boy's instinct to collect was prompted by the Other World in such a way that it became an almost priestly gesture.  To respond sincerely to the urging of a voice within, and in such a way that it serves the greatest good, is to become a priest of some sort.  Even in the modern world, where collecting is understood as appropriation and consumption, it is nevertheless prompted by a message from the deep.  The urge to collect is the natural response of the human psyche to an aesthetic object that speaks directly to it, stirring memories that lie deeply within.  Collecting confirms the indigenous belief that the human psyche reads and understands symbols and that the attraction to beauty is a function of psychic awareness.

I think museums are born out of the West's confused response to things that speak directly to the psyche.  How else can one explain the widespread presence of sacred indigenous art, particularly African art, in the West?  African artistic productions are more accessible outside of Africa than inside it.  In some stores and museums, it is often frightening to view live ancestral masks displayed as if their purpose and function were to be looked at.  These objects emit powerful energies because they are alive.  Westerners do not realize that they are being affected by the energy put out by these live sacred objects.  In Africa, a person who knows and understands the dynamic between art and culture will run away when he confronts living but displaced masks.  For the person who remembers, a statue representing the ancestors or the Spirit World invokes energies that only a dedicated priest can handle.
Pendant Mask:  Iyoba, 16th century Nigeria; Edo peoples, court of Benin---The Michael C. Rockerfeller Memorial Collection, Gift of Nelson A. Rockefeller, 1972 [British Museum].

The West's attraction to collecting icons from the rest of the world seems, to indigenous people, not only a symptom of its disconnection from the past but also an instinctive yet unfocused response to a confused memory that is speaking too loudly for the psyche to ignore.  The good part in this is that Western memory is being jogged by contact with the powerful objects from other parts of the world.  The bad part is that people who flirt with powerful objects from the past are playing with energies they don't know how to interact with.  They should first understand their attraction in terms of a deeply hidden ancestral pull that finds its reflection in the object.  This attraction is the beginning of their awakening to their deep spiritual self, perhaps even their real self.  It is also a response to the call of the Other World.

To further the awakening begun by attraction to a symbolic object, frame your attraction in a series of ritual dialogues in which you speak to the things you are attracted to.  In this dialogue, it is important to speak to the object as though it is animated by a spirit and is alive, not as though it is simply a symbolic representation of something in the distance.  In the indigenous view, a mask of an ancestor is not a symbol of the ancestor, it is the ancestor.  An indigenous person, upon hearing that the mask is only a carving, not the spirit itself, may well respond coldly that this means the speaker can't see.  The eye of the indigenous sees a lot more than appearance.

Then, as you engage in dialogue with the object, describe to it as clearly as possible the feelings and images that arise in you as you associate with the object.  Such an exercise means recognizing that to be attracted to ancestral objects is to be called by another world.  The attraction is an invitation to respond, whether or not one knows exactly how to proceed.  The simple acknowledgement of having heard the call is enough.

Mineral tells us that we know what we need to know, if we would but remember.  In our bones is the knowledge that tells us how to connect to the ancestral energies through the fire, how to decipher the hieroglyphics of nature, how to nourish ourselves from the abundance of the earth without destroying it, and how to find reconciliation to a myriad of troubles and woes in the water.  Mineral is also metal, the wire of communication that connects all of the individuals in a community through stories and collective memories.  The elders say that the rocks can speak, but their voice is so tiny that it can barely  be heard.  The rocks remind us to be still and to listen carefully, to stop searching outside of ourselves for that which we already hold within.

The Healing Wisdom of Africa
pgs. 254-256

Magical StoryTeller
Storytelling as a Mineral Ritual
In the village stories are clearly seen as in the domain of the element mineral, holding the key to memory and purpose.  Everyone must participate and bathe in mythologies.  Stories are not just for children; they are for the child in everyone, who remembers and understands.  Stories open a world wherein relating to others and the world is automatic, and they boost imagination toward a place of better self-knowledge.  Without stories, a society will find it difficult to hold itself together.  It is as if stories bond people together and allow each individual to better comprehend what their place is in the world, and how their place holds everything else together.  Indigenous teachings are derived from stories that they see as eternal blueprints for human wisdom.  Like a forest in which countless beings find their home, stories are places where each one of us can find a home.  The home in the story is the image we hang on to and identify with.  It represents our address in the city of the story.  This home can change from story to story and from one day to the next.  This is because as the circumstances of our lives change, so too does the place we inhabit in stories.

In ritual storytelling, the narrative must guide and inspire people.  First the story must be chosen to reflect current matters.  Then someone must tell it in a way that involves every listener, so that everyone finds something to identify with in the story, and the teller and audience become one.  The teller borrows his story from the pool of ancestral lore.  As they listen, people must find a place for themselves inside the story.  This place will be each person's area of focus as they work to recall their deep identity.  Who we are appears spontaneously within myth if we allow ourselves to be open to it.  Each place in the story is a milestone representing someone, and everyone's position in the story will be more or less different.
Senegalese Traditional Storyteller & Talking Drum

At the end of the story, each person should have received some further insight into his or her own purpose or position.  Such clarity indicates an ability to locate oneself even in the middle of chaos and confusion.  It is as if confusion and dissatisfaction are the psyche's way of telling us that we're not where we're supposed to be.  Clarity about one's position is essential to our sense of identity and important for healing because ritual storytelling can be of great value in helping people locate themselves in society and in the world.

To begin to appreciate stories as healing tools and not merely as entertainment or information, a simple first step is to begin asking of a story, "Where am I in it?  What or whom do I identify with?  A little imagination will help discern the cosmological meaning of it.

The reason fiction dealing with the supernatural is so attractive in the West is that it echoes in the bones the need to become more acquainted with the world of the spirit.  The Other World is precisely the world that in the West has been forgotten.  This attraction is memory itself arising, pulled out of its dormant state by imaginary forms.  The attraction that Halloween has for Americans, the popularity of horror films and stories all point to a place within that is resisting total obliteration.  Behind these tales, wrestling for a place to live, are countless memories that have been frozen in the cells of people's bones.  These memories can be fully awakened only in the context of ritual.  As a result, every ritual performed in the West is a wake-up call to memories hidden in people.  Some of these memories deeply disturb their recipients, who know no way to manage them.  Other images add a powerful new dimension to their recipients' lives.  This is why every mineral ritual must include a period of listening for listening is the complement of storytelling.

The Healing Wisdom of Africa
pgs. 250-251, 253, 254

A Mineral Ritual for Remembering
A basic ritual for remembering begins with the premise that we are alienated from our purpose and that society, in turn, is alienated from its purpose.  First a shrine for the ritual must be made of stones and bones.  These stones and bones should come from many sources and be as diverse as possible.  This diversity is representative of the diversity of purposes.  Just as modern cemeteries are crowded with stones, each one representing the memory of a dead person, the gathered stones of the mineral ritual represent the memory lying within the individuals gathered at the shrine.  The bones represent the stones of the body.  The arrangement of the stones and bones depends on the ingenuity of the people in charge of the shrine...there should be an easily identified point of entrance, representing a gateway into the sacred space of the shrine.  Overall the ritual space will look as though it has a nucleus that contains all these objects and a plasma, which is the space around the objects where people are going to assemble.  This center place is the place of memory.  In contrast, the outer space is the place where supportive forces are built and forwarded to the center.  The building of this energy happens in rhythm and chant.

The ritual itself must focus on individuals, whose task is to remember moments in their lives when they felt strong, connected, powerful, and useful, moments when the world around them seemed like a true home, familiar and welcoming.  Everyone has moments like this; even if they are faint or short-lived, they constitute a window through which we briefly see the possibility of our realignment with our purpose.  With the group gathered together, each person holds a stone in his or her hand and listens for images, thoughts, and impressions to surface.  The energy of stone is allowed to awaken memories within.  After a period of time, which is determined by how fluent people are in listening to the messages of mineral, a sharing will follow.  The listening process involves the locking of one's mind and spirit onto the stone and a letting go of any control or distraction.  If this step can be achieved, graphic images will stream in.  This indicates that an interaction is in progress.  Each person describes to the group the images that most frequently came to consciousness during the listening period.  The images are symbolic of the purpose to which each person is linked.  This presentation of images allows the rest of the group to reflect upon these images and to understand the person's unique qualities and gifts.

At the end of the ritual, the group will pray for the discovered memories to be kept alive, illuminating our path in the dark routes of our journey.  People are urged to retain in their awareness what they have remembered.  This sharing ritual is usually lengthy, but it provides the initial material to allow people to begin thinking about their areas, places and times of strength.

The Healing Wisdom of Africa
pgs. 248-249



Keynote Speaker, 10th Annual Kaua'i Wellness Expo, Lihue, Kaua'i, Hawaii                                                  
Saturday, February 8, 2014 
Kaua'i War Memorial Convention Center 
For more info, write to [email protected] or call 808-652-4328. 
For more details, click here

Guest Speaker, Consciencia International Congress, Puebla, Mexico                                                          
February 21-22, 2014 
For more info, write to  [email protected] 
For more details, call 52 (222) 237-0835/01 800 831 20 76.

Divinations in London, England, UK
March 6-9
COST:  $250 U.S. dollars
For more info & to schedule an appointment, write to Shanah at [email protected]

Divinations in Ojai, CA
April 9-11
COST:  $250
For more info & to schedule an appointment, write to [email protected]

BEYI Ritual, Ojai CA (West Coast)
April 11-13
For more info, click here

Divinations in Minneapolis, MN
April 25-27
COST:  $250
For more info & to schedule an appointment, write to [email protected]

Divinations in Oakland, CA
May 5-7
COST:  $250
For more info & to schedule an appointment, write to  [email protected]

IAST #3, San Francisco Bay Area, California
May 7-11
For more info & details, write to [email protected]

An Evening with Malidoma Som�, Asheville, NC
Friday, May 16th, 7-9 pm
Energy Exchange:  $30
For more info & details, write to [email protected] or click here

Divinations in Asheville, NC
May 16 & 18
For more info & details, write to [email protected]

Two-Day Intensive Grief Ritual with Malidoma Som�
May 17-18
For more info & details, write to [email protected] or click here

Divinations in New York City, NY
May 23-26
For more info, write to [email protected]

Talk, Ritual & Divinations at Jung Society of Utah,
Salt Lake City, UT                                                 
June 6-10
Visit our website calendar in the coming months for more details & updates!

Ritual Healing Village, East Coast Village,
Cherry Plain, NY                                      
June 14-21
For more info click here!

BEYI Ritual, Asheville, NC (East Coast)
July 18-20
For more info, click here

Malidoma in Austria, Europe
June 28-July 9
Visit our website calendar in the coming months for more details & updates!

Wake Up Festival, Estes Park, CO
August 18-24
For more info and details, click here

Malidoma's Pen:
Ritual, Memory, and Purpose

Ritual provides not only healing but also the recovery of memory and the reaffirmation of each individual's life purpose.  How does ritual recover memory?  When we focus our attention on the energetic aspects of individuals and of nature that animate and motivate us, we become aware of images and emotional impressions that are unusual, extremely compelling, and as a result, captivating in terms of the amount of attention they demand.  Inside ritual and sacred space where energies are being woven, people's imagination and consciousnesses can be moved through time backward or forward.  It is as if the awakened psyche is pulled toward those materials it was not able to recall otherwise.  This is a shamanic journey, and it can be a very useful tool for entering these depths of time and space without actually having to expand energy and move physically.  The kind of memory that we are talking about here is something very personal, very compelling, and very transforming.

I remember one example of a white man who was involved in an African-style ritual in England who was asked to play a djembe during the ritual.  He played the drum nonstop for nearly ten hours.  Later on he said that after a few hours, he found himself in an African village drumming with a community of villagers, and the energy was so strong that he didn't realize that time was flowing.  How can you explain this other than to say that the ritual invoked something that allowed this person to dive into a place of memory where he remembered why he was so good at drumming?  In other words, he had done it before.  This is not an idea new in the history of Western thought.  For instance, Aristotle, in his logical discourses, posits that a mathematician can ultimately understand mathematics only if it is originally in his nature to do so, if there is some memory present initially upon which all later training and education can build.  In the understanding of most indigenous people, learning of all sorts is nothing more than remembering what you already know.

One's purpose, which among indigenous people is found through remembering, is linked to both the physical world and to the Spirit World.  We look to the Spirit World for the ultimate helper who assists the individual in fulfilling her or his purpose.  This spirit is seen as something like a guardian angel would be seen in the West, and we call this spirit the Sirua.  We look to the physical world, the community of people, for help in remembering our purpose.  Purpose is not something that is assigned to a person by his or her community.  Purpose is something that the individual has framed and articulated prior to coming into a community.  This purpose is known to the village even before the individual's birth.

In our village everyone gets excited when they hear a woman has become pregnant.  Everyone asks, "Why is this person being sent to us at this time?  What gifts will this person have that our community needs?"  A special ritual is held to answer these questions.  Expert shamans gather with the mother of the fetus and place her under hypnosis.  They contact the life force behind the fetus and ask it to speak using the mother's voice.  The shamans then converse with the fetus, asking it why it is coming into the world and what work it intends to do.  The fetus responds in ways that suggest that the individual has first presented a proposal for his or her life purpose to some council of elders in the Spirit World.  Once the council approves the proposal, it gives the individual permission to be born into a physical body.  In this way the community of people welcoming an infant has some idea of that individual's intentions for life, and it is then the responsibility of that community to help the person continue to remember and focus on her or his chosen life purpose.

If the ritual and sacred method of divining purpose are not available, an individual's purpose can still be identified by noting what the individual is naturally drawn to.  Certain things, like art or construction or design or storytelling, will trigger some excitement in the person.  This feeling is the key to identifying one's purpose.  Therefore it is not necessary for people in the modern world to go to some kind of wise man or authority to have their purpose assigned to them.  The leadership that they need lies within their own relationship to the world of Spirit and the ancestors.  Your purpose is linked to, and monitored by, the spirits in the unseen world.  The unseen world, the world of ancestral spirits, has authorized your purpose, giving you the right to possess the physical body and consciousness needed to exist in this material world.

Your Siura is behind you, trying to work with you as closely as possible to keep you on the path of your purpose, speaking to you through your inspiration, your dreams, and your instincts.  An offering to your Siura now and then at an ancestor altar or any altar is appropriate, a token of appreciation for the diligence and leadership they have shown toward your purpose.

Purpose begins with the individual, and the sum total of all the individual's purposes creates the community's purpose.  The community thus takes upon itself the responsibility of nurturing and protecting the individual, because the individual, knowing his or her purpose, will then invest energy in sustaining the community.  There is a certain reciprocity at work here, because the community recognizes that its own vitality is based in the support and protection of each of its individuals, especially in the constant support and reminding of each individual of his or her purpose.  The individual, knowing this, in turn delivers to the community the gifts that the community has successfully awakened in him or her.

The presence of a community to awaken our gifts in us is necessary because the process of being born tends to erase our memory of why we came here.  And the blindness that we have toward our purpose is progressive.  Early in life you are still at that place where you feel that you might do something.  Children's vitality and enthusiasm are reminiscent of the forces that motivated them to come here.  Of course, the coldness of this world and the rather clear hostility that most of us encounter trying to survive discourage us from the kind of purpose that we were originally so enthused about.  Even within the indigenous context, there is a need for ritual to make sure that the damage done to you by society, to the point where your enthusiasm is tampered with, is repaired, so that you can embrace your purpose fully.  Being born into this world is a trying experience.  Whatever enthusiasm you bring with you here can be toned down and radically edited simply as a result of being here.  The time of physiological transformation when you are growing up is particularly trying, and in this process a toll is taken on your sense of purpose, including forgetting.  All of these changes at the time of puberty have a deep influence on the dynamics of relationship, both with the unseen world and the world that can be seen.

Also, for most young people, the stark visibility of the seen world affects their perception of the unseen world.  Discrimination begins when you say that you can touch this and that, and therefore the reality of the tangible begins to supersede the reality of the intangible.  If you are not exposed to community ritual, you are vulnerable to growing away from Spirit, until you die.  The physiological signs of puberty mark a time when a specific type of ritual is called for, one designed to reconnect the person with the world of the spirits and their purpose, and this is what we call initiation...rituals of all kinds help to reawaken the intensity that brought us here.  Making ritual a part of daily life will help to rekindle the intensity that keeps us on the path of our purpose.

Ritual, community, and healing---these three are so intertwined in the indigenous world that to speak of one of them is to speak of them all.  Ritual, communally designed, helps the individual remember his or her purpose, and such remembering brings healing both to the individual and the community.  The community exists, in part, to safeguard the purpose of each person within it and to awaken the memory of that purpose by recognizing the unique gifts each individual brings to this world.  Healing comes when the individual remembers his or her identity---the purpose chosen in the world of ancestral wisdom---and reconnects with that world of Spirit.  Human beings long for connection, and our sense of usefulness derives from the feeling of connectedness.  When we are connected---to our own purpose, to the community around us, and to our spiritual wisdom---we are able to live and act with authentic effectiveness.

The Healing Wisdom of Africa
pg. 32-36

"Are You MINERAL?"

In Dagara culture, your element is MINERAL if the year of your birth ends in "4" or "9."  For example, a person born in the year of 1959 or 1964 is a Mineral person.

To find your Dagara element, see "What's Your Element?" in the December 2010 Newsletter of the E-Village News Archives from our website.
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Mineral Rituals & Identity Crises

Mineral rituals aim at restoring lost memories.  We have described the element mineral as the storage place of information and have explained that when there is a break in continuity of information and history, society experiences turbulence.  One of the key memories that mineral rituals evoke is the life purpose linked to each human being.  As I have said, in many indigenous cultures, it is understood that everyone comes into this world for a reason.  In order to enter into this world, one must have an approved project to carry out.  The problem is that the clarity with which we embark on our journey to earth begins to fade upon arrival.  Our ability to accomplish our purpose requires a village in which there are other people who know what our purpose is and are able to design a system that presents us with continual reminders of it throughout our lives.

Everyone is gifted.  This means that everyone has something to give.  A person who does not feel gifted is lost in a pit of oblivion and confusion.  Sometimes we are the last people to recognize our own gifts.  When they are shown to us by a group of people, they carry a different and larger meaning, and we feel acknowledged and recognized, which increases our sense of belonging.  The task of a community is to use its knowledge of each person's gifts to help the person make a connection between his or her gifts and the images of strength that regularly occur in that person's psyche.  In this way each person can then act from the knowledge of her or his unique purpose.  In other words, we are born with a profession, and to be most proficient as we go through life, all we need to do is remember our profession.

A person's purpose is energetically inscribed in their bones and its actual translation into work should agree with the message engraved in these bones.  The question is, what happens when what you do does not align with who you are?  It means that you are betraying the very vitality that defines you and are thus inviting great pain into your life.  You are likely to experience low self-worth, a lack of enthusiasm about what you are doing, and, above all, a nagging sense of inner emptiness.  In short, you will experience an identity crisis.

So many people in the modern world, caught between their commitment to survival and their intuitive allegiance to a genuine life purpose, find themselves forced to sacrifice their purpose to make a living.  It is for these people that mineral rituals must be done.  Their very livelihood undermines their reason for being.  There is no greater harm done to a person than the harm of a life activity that competes against, or contradicts, their purpose.  The modern world does not seem to provide an ideal place for people to pursue their life project, for the very survival of the Western economic system demands a state of constant striving and sacrifice from the people who work within it.  It may seem that you are threatening your economic survival if you abandon the prevailing economic system to pursue something as seemingly intangible as a personal life purpose.  Yet pursuing one's life purpose is the foundation on which the health of both the individual and the community rests.

Indigenous people recognize that when the individual does not remember, gradually it is the culture, the society, that forgets.  Individuals who forget their life purpose put the whole community at risk.  They begin to look outside themselves for their purpose, and society often responds to their demand by creating artificial goals.  But society loses in this process, because it is not receiving what is the individual's to give.  Not to know what gift you're bringing to your people implies that you cannot deliver.  If you cannot give, it means that the community cannot receive from you.

The Healing Wisdom of Africa
pgs. 243-245

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