Called the "Chief Architect of the Constitution," he wrote many of the Federalist
Papers which helped convince States to ratify the Constitution.
He introduced the First Amendment in the first session of Congress.
This was James Madison, born MARCH 16, 1751.
At the onset of the War of 1812, President James Madison proclaimed a Day of Prayer, July 9, 1812, stating:
"I do therefore recommend...rendering the Sovereign of the Universe...public
homage...acknowledging the transgressions which might justly provoke His
divine displeasure...seeking His merciful forgiveness...
and with a reverence for the unerring precept of our holy religion, to do to others as they would require that others should do to them."
The next year, on July 23, 1813, Madison issued another Day of Prayer, referring to: "religion, that gift of Heaven for the good of man."
Beginning with the French Revolution in 1789, Napoleon gained prominence with his military prowess till he controlled most of Europe.
In 1805, Napoleon's navy was defeated at the Battle of Trafalgar, giving Britain mastery of the seas.
In 1812, Napoleon invaded Russia with nearly 500,000 men, and six month later left Russia with less than 50,000.
Napoleon abdicated, April 6, 1814, and was exiled to the Island of Elba.
This freed up British forces, which were sent to control Lake Eire and invade New York, New Orleans and Washington, D.C.
On August 24, 1814, a force of 4,500 British soldiers marched toward Washington, D.C.
In a panic, citizens hastily evacuated. Dolly Madison is credited with saving the Gilbert Stuart portrait of George Washington by having it cut out of its frame.
Her carriage was riding out of the city as British Admiral George Cockburn was riding in.