Tip of the Month - Treating your arrays with cysteine
Arrays are oxygen plasma etched the day they are shipped from Applied BioPhysics. This step sterilizes the arrays and also cleans the gold resulting in clean, pristine electrodes. Over time, small molecules in the atmosphere adsorb to the gold surfaces resulting in increased electrode impedance and resistance - lower capacitance. When exposed to tissue culture medium these molecules slowly desorb, and the impedance values can eventually return to those associated with clean electrodes. To assure this takes place in a timely manner, we strongly recommend that researchers take measures to clean the gold before cell inoculation.
Our preferred way to accomplish this is with the amino acid cysteine. The cysteine forms a covalent linkage with the gold electrode surface, likely displacing any small unwanted molecules that have adsorbed to the gold surface over time. This treatment cleans and modifies the electrode surfaces enhancing experimental repeatability with minimum variation between ECIS wells.
To accomplish this, the well should be flooded with a 10 mM sterile solution of L-cysteine in distilled water. The solution can easily be prepared in your laboratory and filter sterilized or purchased from AppliedBioPhysics (Electrode-stabilizing solution). After exposure to the cysteine and thorough rinsing, the wells are ready for inoculation with cells. The time for the cysteine exposure depends upon the history of the array: for relatively newly etched arrays often the reaction is completed in only a few minutes, but to be certain the reaction has gone to completion, an hour-long exposure is recommended for all arrays.
If you plan to coat the electrodes with an ECM or other protein, this can be accomplished either before or after the cysteine treatment. We occasionally see subtle differences in the behavior of cells depending upon the order of these electrode treatments. This is not entirely unexpected as in one case the protein interacts with the gold and in the other with the cysteine layer (both are hydrophilic in nature and ready for protein adsorption).
An alternative way to clean the electrodes uses the ECIS electrical stabilization method. This feature is built into the ECIS software, and more information can be found in the ECIS Manual.
ECIS Application Webinar Series
ECIS application webinars review the topics listed below in 20 to 30 minute, web-based, interactive seminars presented by Applied BioPhysics president and co-founder, Dr. Charles Keese.
Automated Cell Migration - November 4, 2014
Barrier Function Assays - November 18, 2014
Real-time Electroporation and Monitoring - December 9, 2014
The latest version of the software is v1.2.177 available from:
You can check the latest version by going to the Help menu, Check for Updates.
Windows 7/8 ECIS installation:
If you are upgrading to Windows 7 or 8 you will need a full installation of the ECIS software. The installation instructions can be found here:
You can change how the plot lines look by going to the Edit menu and selecting Plot Style.
Select Line Style to change from a solid line to a dashed line, or dotted line, or dash-dot.
Select Line Width to change the thickness of the plot lines.
Select Marker Style to change the marker for each point to a dot, circle, x-mark, plus, square or diamond.
You can also change the color of each well by going to the Edit menu, then Colormap,
and selecting a predefined color map, or Manual to specify the exact color. The 3 values are Red, Green and Blue values, and range from 0 to 1. Red is (1 0 0), Green is (0 1 0), Blue is (0 0 1) and Black is (0 0 0). Magenta is (1 0 1), Yellow is (1 1 0), Cyan is (0 1 1), and Gray is (0.5 0.5 0.5). You may specify any 3 values to get your desired color.
Tradeshows & Events
Vascular Biology 2014
Oct 19 - 23, 2014
Asilomar Conference Grounds
American Society for Cell Biology
December 6 - 10, 2014
Society for Laboratory Automation & Screening
February 7 - 11, 2015
Therapeutic and Diagnostic of Inflamation,
Cancer and Host Defense of the Gastrointestinal Tract
March 18 - 19, 2015
Petit Science Center
Georgia State University
SOT 2015 Annual Meeting
March 22 - 26, 2015
San Diego, CA
Experimental Biology 2015
March 28 - April 1, 2015
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AN ALL HUMAN 3D IN VITRO MODEL OF THE BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER IN NANOPARTICLE DELIVERY AND CANCER METASTASIS STUDIES Geoffrey John Pilkington, Zaynah Maherally, Samah Jassam, Eugen Barbu, and Helen Fillmore Neuro Oncology. 2014; 16:iii33.
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Toll-Like Receptor 2 Activation by β21-Fructans Protects Barrier Function of T84 Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells in a Chain Length-Dependent Manner Leonie M. Vogt, Diederick Meyer, Gerdie Pullens, Marijke M. Faas, Koen Venema, Uttara Ramasamy, Henk A. Schols, and Paul de Vos J. Nutr. 2014; 144:1002-1008.
Endothelial Cell Permeability and Adherens Junction Disruption Induced by Junín Virus Infection Heather M. Lander, Ashley M. Grant, Thomas Albrecht, Terence Hill, and Clarence J. Peters Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014; 90:993-1002
Non-muscle Mlck is required for β-catenin- and FoxO1-dependent downregulation of Cldn5 in IL-1β-mediated barrier dysfunction in brain endothelial cells Richard S. Beard, Jr, Ricci J. Haines, Kevin Y. Wu, Jason J. Reynolds, Stephanie M. Davis, John E. Elliott, Nikolay L. Malinin, Victor Chatterjee, Byeong J. Cha, Mack H. Wu, and Sarah Y. Yuan
Dynamin 2 regulation of integrin endocytosis, but not VEGF signaling, is crucial for developmental angiogenesis Monica Y. Lee, Athanasia Skoura, Eon Joo Park, Shira Landskroner-Eiger, Levente Jozsef, Amelia K. Luciano, Takahisa Murata, Satish Pasula, Yunzhou Dong, Mohamed Bouaouina, David A. Calderwood, Shawn M. Ferguson, Pietro De Camilli, and William C. Sessa Development. 2014; 141:1465-1472.
Interleukin-4 Induces Up-regulation of Endothelial Cell Claudin-5 through Activation of FoxO1: ROLE IN PROTECTION FROM COMPLEMENT-MEDIATED INJURY Agustin P. Dalmasso, Daniel Goldish, Barbara A. Benson, Alexander K. Tsai, Karen R. Wasiluk, and Gregory M. Vercellotti J. Biol. Chem. 2014; 289:838-847.
Activation of Rap1 inhibits NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation in retinal pigment epithelium and reduces choroidal neovascularization Haibo Wang, Yanchao Jiang, Dallas Shi, Lawrence A. Quilliam, Magdalena Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, Erika S. Wittchen, Dean Y. Li, and M. Elizabeth Hartnett FASEB J.2014; 28:265-274.J. Cell Sci.2014; 127:1840-1853.