| Director's Message |
Flipping Our Classrooms
Last year the New England Journal of Medicine published a thought piece called Lecture Halls without Lectures - A Proposal for Medical Education. In it, the authors described the transformation of a biochemistry course, which switched from a traditional lecture format to a flipped classroom model. The instructors replaced lectures with short on-line video presentations and used the large group class time for interactive discussions of clinical cases focusing on the underlying biochemistry. They gleefully reported that class attendance increased from 30% to 80% even though attendance was optional. The success of this model depends on both instructors and learners taking on new roles and responsibilities in their educational interactions, and this is not always an easy transition for either party. While the flipped classroom is one of the hottest topics in education right now, many educators are concerned about the limitations of this approach, particularly when poorly implemented.
The flipped classroom model has received a lot of attention in recent years, with perhaps the Khan Academy being the most visible and famous example. In his TED Talk Let's Use Video to Reinvent Education, Salman Khan describes the power of interactive education where instructors focus on application of knowledge as much as knowledge transmission: lectures now become homework and homework problems become the focus of time spent with students.
The Khan Academy now includes over 150 videos in the Healthcare and Medicine archive. These lectures are grouped by topics which range from influenza to blood pressure to endocrinology and diabetes. There is also a six-lecture series on the health care system, addressing issues such as drug pricing, health care costs and Medicare. The Khan Academy can be used to brush up on key concepts in basic sciences, mathematics and statistics. Perhaps not surprisingly, there is a website for medical students for sharing their own video lectures and educational resources.
There are a wide range of resources available for individuals interested in developing their own short instructional videos; a sample of these is provided below:
Brian Mavis, PhD
Associate Professor and Director
Office of Medical Education Research and Development
College of Human Medicine
-The Central Group on Educational Affairs (CGEA) is accepting registrations for the 2013 Spring Conference. The meeting will be held March 21-23 in Cincinnati, OH. For more information, visit the AAMC - CGEA website.
-The MSU Libraries now has a new guide for medical images and video resources. Resources are divided into MSU free-to-use, MSU fee-based, and freely available non-MSU resources, as well as a section on copyright education. We hope that this guide will make it easier to find images for use in your course materials.
The Medical Images Guide is available at http://libguides.lib.msu.edu/medicalimages and the Health Sciences Videos guides is available at http://libguides.lib.msu.edu/healthsciencesvideos.
For questions about the library's new medical images and video guides, please contact:
Andrea C. Kepsel, MLIS
Liaison to the College of Human Medicine - Grand Rapids
WG-1I Main Library, (517) 884-0898
321 Secchia Center, (616) 234-2742
IAMSE Webcast Audio Seminar Series Sponsored by OMERAD: Best Practices for Technology Applications in Health Professions Education
OMERAD is pleased to announce that we will be sponsoring the upcoming webcast audio seminars series of the International Association of Medical Science Educators (IAMSE) from February 28th thru March 28th. There will be five sessions around topics of best practices for Technology Applications in Health Professions Education.
There is one session per week, every Thursday from 12:00-1:00 pm ET, starting on February 28th. We will meet in room A-216 East Fee Hall, East Lansing. OMERAD will provide access to the webcast and project it in the room. A computer is not required to participate, but you may bring your own laptop/mobile device to take notes, and bring your own lunch.
Here is a list of the IAMSE seminars series:
Feb 28 Use of Curriculum Mapping Tools to Identify Learning Opportunities and Deficiencies I: Curriculum Mapping in an Age of Competency-based Education
Mar 7 Use of Curriculum Mapping Tools to Identify Learning Opportunities and Deficiencies II: Knowledge Map
Mar 14 International Virtual Medical School (IVIMEDS): An Idea Ahead of Its Time?
Mar 21 Using Multimedia and Education Technology to Enhance Teaching
Mar 28 Using Technology to Promote and Assess Active Learning
Click here to register with OMERAD for the webcast. Everyone is invited to attend to one, or all sessions. Pass the word and invite a colleague to come with you!
For more information about the upcoming seminar sessions, please visit the IAMSE website.
If you are unable to attend due to location or schedule issues; seminar materials (PPT, handouts) and possible recordings of each seminar presentation may be available at the IAMSE website at a later time.Past sessions of the IAMSE webcast seminars are available now for review at their archive
AAMC Group on Information Resources: Tech Briefs
Technology is constantly changing and affects our everyday lives, but how can we keep pace with the technological and learning trends for our benefit and the benefit of our learners? How can we use new technology for learning such as Game-based Learning, Cloud Computing or Mobile Apps to energize educational programs and keep learners interested?
The Group on Information Resources (GIR) produces one-page "briefs" with information about the latest technologies, trends and issues relevant to the medical education community. The briefs are developed by a core editorial committee made up of members of the GIR's Education Technology Work Group and are designed to make it easier for Information Resources professionals to communicate with stakeholders (Deans, students, colleagues) and help in the decision-making process.
Each brief presents at a quick glance, overviews of advantages and disadvantages of new technologies being used or considered by many academic medical centers, as well as brands, strategic considerations, and resources.
The latest Tech Brief Game-Based Learning in Medical Education (January 2013) explores various components of serious games, platform types, resources on efficacy, development considerations, and game examples. This Tech Brief and more are available on the GIR website.
Office of Medical Education Research and Development
College of Human Medicine
517-353-2037 ext. 237
| CHM Program Evaluation|
Understanding Medical Student Mistreatment
While reports of the mistreatment of medical students have appeared in the literature for over 20 years, it is only recently that professional organizations have focused attention on trying to understand this issue. The Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) noted that since 1991 when the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) graduation questionnaire started to included questions about mistreatment, approximately 17 to 20% of medical students across the country each year consistently reported mistreatment. Our dean Marsha Rappley chaired the LCME committee that requested the AAMC and the American Medical Association to look further into the phenomena of medical student mistreatment. As a result, the medical education community was activated to explore the problem and to find ways to prevent student mistreatment.
The primary source of data about medical student mistreatment comes from the AAMC Graduation Questionnaire, which is administered to all graduating medical students in the spring prior to graduation. Examining the data for CHM compared to the national reports reveals that the CHM is no different than most medical schools: on average, 14% of CHM graduates reported mistreatment from 2000 to 2011 (Figure 1).
For the graduates of 2011, 17% of CHM respondents and 17% of respondents nationally answered affirmatively to the question, have you been mistreated during medical school?
The graduates who reported mistreatment where asked to specify the types of mistreatment that they experienced. The responses are described in the table below; respondents were asked to indicate all that applied.
Forty-four percent of these CHM students indicated that they reported these incidents compared to 31% of US graduates indicating mistreatment.
None of the following types of mistreatment were reported by the 2011 CHM graduates: threatened or actual physical harm, asked to exchange sexual favors for grades or other rewards, denied opportunities or rewards based on race/ethnicity, racially or ethnically offensive remarks or names, received lower evaluations or grades solely because of your race/ethnicity, denied opportunities or rewards based on sexual orientation, offensive remarks or names based on your sexual orientation, or received lower evaluations or grades solely because of your sexual orientation.
Students who reported mistreatment were also asked to identify the source of the mistreatment that they experienced, summarized in Table 2. While a wide variety of sources of mistreatment were identified, it appears that mistreatment is most likely to occur in clinical settings.
These data raise a wide range of issues for consideration, such as:
- Definitions of mistreatment and the interplay of the subjective experience of students versus the intention of faculty and staff.
- Procedures to protect the safety and rights of both accused and accusers.
- Organizational factors that can contribute to an institutional culture that supports or discourages these types of behaviors.
Many medical schools, including CHM are now considering the implications of these data in terms of policies and procedures, the multiple environments where learning occurs and what can be done to prevent the mistreatment of our students.
| Faculty Development|
Series of How-To Articles on Clinical Teaching in Medical Teacher
The medical education journal Medical Teacher, published in collaboration with the Association for Medical Education in Europe, has run a series of short articles called Twelve Tips since 1987. These how-to articles focus on a specific medical education topic within such categories as clinical teaching, educational technology, or assessment.
We have compiled a list of the Twelve Tips articles by category and will be presenting portions of that list in VitalSigns. In this edition we are listing the articles pertaining to clinical teaching. These articles are available full text through the MSU Libraries. You must have an MSU netID to access them.
Go to http://www.lib.msu.edu/. Once you are at the Libraries home page, click on the Resources tab, then select "E-Resources" in the drop-down menu. Type "Medical Teacher" (but not the quotation marks) in the box under Find Electronic Journals, then click Search. When the search results are displayed, click the first result (Informa Healthcare Current Subscriptions 1997 - present).
The page for Medical Teacher contains links to all the issues. You can choose to see a summary of the article, full text on the web page, or full text in a PDF file.
Twelve Tips for:
- supporting student learning in multidisciplinary clinical placements. 2012, Vol. 34, No. 11: 883-887
- teaching expertise in clinical reasoning. 2011, Vol. 33, No. 11: 887-892
- implementing tools for direct observation of medical trainees' clinical skills during patient encounters. 2011, Vol. 33, No. 1: 27-33
- running a successful body painting teaching session. 2010, Vol. 32, No. 11: 887-890
- presenting a clinical problem solving exercise. 2009, Vol. 31, No. 12: 1056-1059
- teaching clinical thinking to first-year medical students. 2009, Vol. 31, No. 2: 105-111
- excellent physical examination teaching. 2008, Vol. 30, No. 9-10: 851-856
- teaching avoidance of diagnostic errors. 2008, Vol. 30, No. 5: 496-500
- use of a white board in clinical teaching: reviving the chalk talk. 2007, Vol.29, No. 2-3: 89-92
- promoting excellence in medical teaching.2006, Vol. 28, No. 1: 19-23
- developing professional attitudes in training. 2003, Vol. 25, No. 5: 485-487
- developing a clinical teaching program in a day surgery unit. 2003, Vol. 25, No. 4: 364-367
- improving bedside teaching. 2003, Vol. 25, No. 2: 112-115
- setting up an ambulatory care (outpatient) teaching center. 2001, Vol. 23, No. 4: 345-350
- using role-plays in clinical teaching. 1993, Vol. 15, No. 4: 283-291
- using videotape reviews for feedback on clinical performance. 1993, Vol. 15, No. 2-3: 131-139
| Hot Off the Press|
- Gusic M, Amiel J, Baldwin C, Chandran L, Fincher R, Mavis B, et al. Using the AAMC Toolbox for Evaluating Educators: You be the Judge!. MedEdPORTAL; 2013. Available from: www.mededportal.org/publication/9313.
The Office of Medical Education Research and Development is a unit within the College of Human Medicine at Michigan State University. Its mission is to improve medical education and related service programs through evaluation and research consultation, relevant instruction, and programs of faculty development.
Established in 1966, OMERAD is the oldest continuously operating office of medical education in the United States.
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965 Fee Road
East Lansing, Michigan 48824
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