Volume 2, Issue 2
January 8,  2012
Mankind's Second Dispersion
Prior to searching for the archaeological evidence of the Flood, I was familiar with assurances that there has never been any replenishing of the world that might be identified with a new dispersion from Noah's family. I reckoned it was so. Otherwise, how could the archaeologists have missed it? But it is my custom to check out scholarly and scientific proclamations. I delight when others investigate my own. That improves our understanding of science and history.
I discovered that until the middle years of the twentieth century, migrations were all the rage among archaeologists. Those doing this weren't interested in Noah's family but in light coming from the Ancient Near East. Others were interested in light bearers: Egyptians spreading mummies and pyramids and Aryans their superior civilization. Most migrations were discovered by trying to understand patterns in the archaeological remains. Then set in what is known as the anti-diffusion dogma: the denial that not even inventions or ideas spread from the Ancient Near East to northern Europe, or from the Old World to the New World. Currently, North American archaeologists deny the manifest evidence that natives here migrated from Mexico and Central America.
That has given natives the right to claim as their ancestors the most ancient burials found in their territories, which are usually those from the Flood. But even when folks believed in the Flood, few thought of antediluvians as living in America. Those settlements from the Middle Bronze migration (see above map) that I trace from the Ancient Near East differ from those belonging to the earth's earlier inhabitants in being actual settlements rather than cemeteries or burial mounds. The material cultures of these new migrations have no continuity with those in the Flood burials.
Fortunately, a lot of archaeological research had been done prior to the era of anti-diffusion. The migration lines that you see on the map above are mainly from those archaeological traces. The details are given in the text and footnotes and found in the more than one thousand sources listed in The Archaeological Evidence. The map above pertains to the larger worldwide spread and not the immediate dispersion connecting historically-known peoples according to the table of nations from Noah's family (Genesis 10), to be the subject of another newsletter.
These migrations begin in the Middle Bronze of the Ancient Near East. From about 2100 BC, there spread throughout the world new migrations, each having a distinctive material character but all sharing a subset of what is found in the Middle Bronze of the Ancient Near East. That would include lost-wax bronze working; the heddle loom; wattle-and-daub hut construction, megaron houses with internal court yards, stepped pyramids; spoked-wheel wagons; hieroglyphic writing on bark paper; sand-tempered ceramics that include thin-walled cups and pots, tripod vessels (for open fire cooking), large urns, animal figurines, handles or side lugs for carrying, decorated with incisions and dentate stamping, chevrons and swastikas; and the bow-and-arrow for hunting. They also spread domesticated crops such as grapes, apples, apricots, barley, flax, and distinctive species of cotton. Their domesticated animals included dogs, horses, camels, cattle, pigs, and chickens. They carried with them religious practices like burnt sacrifices and some memory of the great Flood.
Archaeologists do note great changes in the archaeological record occurring at just this time. That they have failed to see what are entirely new beginnings is because, despite their significance and long duration, Middle Bronze Age remains are tiny. This is because mankind's numbers are recovering from the great Flood that ended the Early Bronze Age (as also the Chalcolithic, Neolithic, and Paleolithic "Ages" at concurrent but less affluent locations). Even most of what is now assigned to the Middle Bronze Age are improperly-assigned burials from the Early Bronze Age.
The same situation exists everywhere outside the Ancient Near East. China slowly recovers its population with the beginnings of Hsia, Shang, and Chou settlements along the Yellow River, the Neolithic population all over China having been ended by the Flood. The Formative cultures of America spread from the Far East to Ecuador about three thousand years ago, and all over America from those beginnings. America's Paleolithic and Archaic cultures were lost in the Flood. Sand-tempered pottery and the bow-and-arrow, entirely unknown to the earlier populations of America, were spread by the newcomers.
The first post-Flood settlements in Europe include the famous Minoan settlements on the island of Crete. Minyan pottery marks the spread of new migrants across Turkey into Greece and Italy. These new migrants create the Mycenaean culture in Greece and the Villanovan culture in northern Italy. Both are related to the spreading Urnfield cultures on the continent. Much of Europe, India, and all of subSaharan Africa remained unsettled to the Iron Age when axes suitable for clearing great forest became available.
Archaeologists typically see these migrations as interesting new cultures arising in the midst of those cultures that are marked by burial mounds and cemeteries. This is what inspired the theory of the Aryan invaders. In fact, the new people were less violent than those agrarians who had previously lived in the lands where they were spreading.
Importantly, radiocarbon dating was not available in the first half of the twentieth century when most of these traces were being searched. As in the case of the Hopewell and Adena cultures of the Ohio River, Flood burials more than two thousand years older, are assumed those of the new occupants. But the culture of the burials altogether differs from those of the new settlers. 
As I detail in Chapter 20 of my book, these Flood burials provide a wonderful marker for clarifying the archaeology of ancient man. They function as the tuning of a radio or the focussing of a telescope, turning the currently disconnected and muddled picture of man's past into a wonderfully clear picture of settlements and migrations. The light and lens for integrated understanding comes from those "mythical" early chapters of Genesis. No one should judge the light of a lamp until they have actually used it.
Best regards,
Philip Williams
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In this issue
Mankind's second dispersion
The state of archaeology
Degeneration or rustification?
Explaining trans-ocean similarities

The state of the archaeology 

Fragmented, muddled, abstract, boring - until now!
Though its subject concerns antiquity, archaeology is in fact a new science dating only from the middle of the nineteenth century. The archaeologists' prehistoric chronology built upon the recent-earth history that had just been established by Charles Lyell. As I have explained, this was an artificial construction that Lyell specifically designed to mask evidence of Noah's Flood.
Begun by antiquarians and art historians, the field has always been influenced by social and intellectual fashions. One of the earliest fashions is known as uni-linear evolution (the assumed steady upward progress of man). Rather arbitrarily, Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) man was identified with Lyell's Pleistocene (the Ice Age). Neolithic and Bronze Ages followed after the Ice Age. What are in fact just hunting camps of advanced peoples become those of primitive ancestors. The settlements of the poor (lacking metal or Neolithic) are assumed older than those with more expensive metal artifacts. 
Another fashion known as archaeology's Imperial Period occurred when European nations sought to find glorious ancestors by tracing the archaeological remains of ancient man. By the middle of the twentieth century, most of the ancient civilizations and cultures pertaining to ancient man had been identified and systematized. That's when a dreadful scientification began moving archeology from the humanities to the sciences, in the process turning archaeologists into technicians. Most of them today are employed as contractors to excavate archaeological remains in the path of new construction. 
By the sixties, the anti-diffusion dogma that prohibited the study of human migrations beyond what was supposed original inhabitants began taking hold of the field. The official archaeological picture of ancient man came under control of national antiquities authorities and the archaeologists they licensed to study various sites. Those looking at the larger picture of man from archaeological remains limited themselves to millennium by millennium summaries of what these archaeologists claimed to have been occurring at their sites and regions. 
This field ceases to interest new students when it becomes difficult to relate the remains of man to man's history. Those looking at the larger picture of man's past speak in terms of functionalism or post-processual archaeology. These are philosophers ruling what is in fact a practical science deeply related to the humanities. Is there any wonder that archaeological departments at universities have been steadily closing or merged into other departments? It also explains why New Age and various kinds of alternative archaeology have been increasing in popularity. But that just brings more confusion to the science of archaeology.
I believe that for the first time in this science's history, archaeology is soon to become integrated and informative as one after another of the mysteries of ancient man are cleared by the light of Genesis. It has to be good for any science to see long-established paradigms questioned and challenged. Archaeology may once again become exciting, as it is shown to be relevant to big questions facing us today.
Degeneration or rustification?
Both material and literary culture is lost with the isolation of populations.
A distant Aussie cousin             Uncle Jed
One thing causing many to disbelieve that all the earth's people derive from Noah's family was the comparatively "primitive" state of natives that Europeans discovered in newly explored lands. According to their widely-believed uni-linear evolution, the material state of mankind never degenerates. They found it difficult to believe that the savages they discovered could possible have the same recent ancestors as themselves.
high level of material civilization requires large numbers of people living in an organized fashion. When a small group leaves an advanced civilization to live permanently in isolation, a high degree of what I call rustification must necessarily occur. This happened when the first Europeans came to America. They had to resort to a more rustic though more self-sufficient style of living. I prefer rustification to degeneration to describe my Appalachian ancestors whom the historian Arnold J. Toynbee described as a sad example of a people who once knew civilization and lost it. Even so, my Appalachian ancestors had more neighbors and cross-ocean contacts than those who first settled the Pacific islands and Australia after the Flood. 
A small group of people are not able to bring with them all the skills and tools found in their homeland. Those who become lost or finding themselves living alone may have to resort almost exclusively to a lifestyle of fishing and hunting. Books are more valuable for starting fires. Their seed and animal stocks may have been completely devoured on their cross ocean journey as was likely the case with almost every early crossing of the great Pacific. Subsequent generations will soon forget much of what their parents knew. 
On the other hand, they may develop skills, cultigens, and arts unknown to their ancestors that are particularly adapted and important for survival in their new homeland. Maize, squash, tomatoes, potatoes, and pumpkins were all cultivated not far from where the first settlers after the Flood landed in America. It seems that only seeds of Egyptian cotton and Chihuahua dogs made the long Pacific crossing without getting devoured on the crossing.
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Explaining similarities among peoples divided by oceans
Parallel evolution, diffusion, or migration?
Shaman vaseShang tigerOlmec           Olmec           Shang


Anthropologists have long noticed distinctive similarities in the arts between natives living in isolation across great distances and oceans. There exists sudden and almost simulaneous appearance of things like spoked wheels, literacy, and bronze working after what is supposed thousands of years of primitive living. To explain these things by parallel evolution, they have proposed the psychic unity of man. How can evolution explain the simultaneous emergence of novel features?


Another explanation is supposed diffusion of art and ideas through cross-ocean contact. Of course, anthropologists have completely ignored the carrying of these important new features due to migrations of an entirely new population, the earlier civilization having long before turned into one great cemetery by the Flood. Geneticists do not deny the origin of native Americans from the inhabitants of Far East Asia. But cross-ocean similarities include arts that appear for the first time in Asia only about four thousand years ago, appearing a short time later in the Formative Cultures of native America. The sculptures of the Sumo wrestler and Shaman (first 2 pictures) above are found in ancient America. The kneeling tiger (3rd picture) is Chinese Shang.


There are in fact numerous distinctive motifs that the Formative cultures of America share with the Shang Chinese, including according to some, scripts in native American writing with similarities to those found on oracle bones in Shang China. According to Dr. Joseph Needham, the Maya used exactly the same complex calculations to give warning about the likelihood of solar and lunar eclipses as Chinese astronomers of the Han Dynasty. Dr. Paul Tolstoy of the University of Montreal has made a meticulous study of bark paper around the Pacific basin. His conclusion is that this technology known in ancient China, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, as well as Middle America spread at a very early date. 

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Christian Leaders & Scholars is the newsletter and publication site of Philip Ernest Williams, author of The Archaeological Evidence of Noah's Flood (2011). The site is also a ministry not only to Christian leaders and scholars but all who are interested in the more difficult issues pertaining to the Bible and its implications for science and history. (Read more)