Volume 1, Issue 5
September 4, 2011
Stonehenge Otzi the Ice Man



Where is the archaeological evidence of the worldwide Flood? NAMI's discovery should profoundly affect us (see right), but there is much other archaeological evidence that should no less impress us. 


I was stunned to discover that we have long been looking at plentiful archaeological evidence of Noah's Flood. We have failed to recognize what can only have been due to the Flood, ironically, because anthropologists have taught us to interpret burials due to the Flood as the product of ancient religion!


The Stonehenge site in England has been described as everything from a Druid temple to an ancient astronomical observatory. Because of burials in ditches surrounding these ancient pillars, archaeologists have at last concluded that Stonehenge is an ancient cemetery. In fact, the "ditches" are a series of buried long houses filled with the remains of drowned soldiers who guarded this antediluvian palace. The long houses encircling the Stonehenge palace were covered by topsoil swept there by the Flood.


Europe is full of megalithic cemeteries, all dating from the same era. See below the radiocarbon dates of the Stonehenge burials. Similar burials are found on other continents: the "Indian" burial mounds (but not temple mounds) in North America; the preceramic "temples" (because of the burials) of Peru; the mastabas beside the Pyramids of Egypt, containing all the needs of the afterlife (same as for those living there); and the famous royal tombs of Ur. I was reading Sir Leonard Woolley's macabre reconstruction of an ancient funeral for the King of Ur - how Woolley supposed that dancing girls and soldiers were executed to accompany their king and his gold - when a light dawned. All these died when Noah's Flood suddenly changed the entire earth into one great cemetery. As at ancient Pompeii, the remains of the dead are arranged in the same way and in the same places as these antediluvians lived.


Forensic analysis of all these remains points to mass drowning: flexed positions of bodies (from floating torsos), crushed skeletons, informal arrangement, young and healthy bodies. Despite the massive burials, there are no settlements for the living, even if some of these "tombs" have gardens and fences! As in the case of Otzi the Iceman (above right*), the remains of those in mountains escaped getting buried by topsoil from the Flood.


Something else characterizing the remains from this era is plentiful evidence of violence: all those soldiers, massive walls, fortifications, burials with weapons, spent stones and arrowheads. Even Otzi shows evidence of having been wounded by some weapon. According to the Bible, God sent the Flood because of this violence. Other Flood traditions (see below right) also explain the cause of the Flood as due to mankind's bad behavior. 


For centuries following these Early Bronze remains, Europe is archaeologically silent. The next archaeological evidence is the spread of urnfield cultures that can be tied to the historical Europeans. The details are in my book.


Regards to all,


Philip Williams

*Photo of Otzi from South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology, Bolzano, Italy
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If this is your first Christian Leaders & Scholars Newsletter, please take a look at our first 4 newsletters.
In this issue
The profound significance of NAMI's discovery
Radiocarbon date for the Flood!
Are Flood traditions from missionaries?


The profound significance of NAMI's discovery

 A stone flung to the head of the skeptical challenge to the Bible


It should not take much intellectual acumen to understand the meaning of the discovery of Noah's Ark. As the archaeologist Eric Cline explained the logic on ABC's Good Morning America, "If the Ark is real, then the Flood must be real, then the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament are real." I have noted in these newsletters how the scientific challenge to the Bible is specifically founded on the denial of Noah's Flood. Of course, someone is profoundly and disastrously mistaken!


Granted that faith does not need this evidence. A world that takes its authority from science does. We will soon discover how much that is true, or whether the assertion that science is based on evidence is but a hypocritical cover for naturalistic dogma. That many, including those posing as believers, dismiss the evidence from NAMI without examination is a good indication that some minds are closed to evidence that would have profound implications in favor of a literal reading of the Bible.


Regardless, this evidence is not going away. Skeptics must discover some better explanation for dismissing this discovery. As Ted Wright explains in the trailer below, this is going to be a test of hearts: the true motivation of our beliefs.


Read how this discovery recalls the account of David and Goliath.  



Radiocarbon dating, yes, but what is being dated?
And marine diets explain why
so many human sites date so early 
Stonehenge radiocarbon dates
Radiocarbon dates for Stonehenge burials*

Radiocarbon has given us a wonderful means of dating ancient ruins - if we date a statistically significant number of archaeologicallly clear remains. I have used radiocarbon measurements to date Noah's Flood. Consider the dating for those buried at Stonehenge.* These burials date amazingly close to the year of the Flood as famously calculated by Archbishop Usher (included in the margins of older King James Bibles)!


Experts at radiocarbon dating point to a number of cautions. One is due to eating food from the sea. The older carbon dioxide absorbed by sea creatures and humans eating seafood results in far too old datings. Not surprising, many claims for oldest human settlements (Australia, Japan, and the Americas) are near the sea. 


It is not only coastal sites that have a problem with old carbon. An example is at Gobekli Tepli in Turkey, recently touted as the world's first temple, suppose to date 6000 years before Stonehenge. This site was dated from soil clinging to its pillars. Using that technique, the basement of your house or church may be the world's oldest temple. 


Kathlyn Kenyon's dating of Jericho, "the world's oldest city," may have no better foundation. Archaeologists know the proper technique for submitting samples for dating, but few archaeologists understand the science and the problems. Who is supervising archaeological dating? Usually, it is the archaeologist and national antiquities authorities, those with vested interest in discovering or controlling the world's oldest something. To the "oldest" goes the prestige and the money. The world's oldest sites will keep getting pushed back towards infinity.


Notwithstanding, it should be possible to accurately determine and date the oldest human remains. Radiocarbon is suitable only for remains dating less than 100,000 years. That should be more than adequate. Most plant and animal remains are ancient, but the oldest archaeologically clear human remains may date to less than 6000 years. 


*Michael Pitts, Hengeworld (Random House, 2000), p6

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Are Flood traditions from Christian missionaries?
Too ancient for that, but they do witness to a second worldwide human dispersion?
Gilgamesh's version of the Flood
Gilgamesh's account of the FloodI

If skeptics truly considered evidence, there is plenty of relevant testimony to a world destroying Flood. The event is attested not just in the Bible but by the memories of almost every ancient nation. Though the accounts vary, most traditions include similar details to the account in the Bible. That has caused some skeptics to attribute these stories to Christian missionaries.


Anthropologists, even unbelievers such as Sir James Frazer, know that these stories do in fact precede the missionaries. Accounts by the ancient Greeks, the Egyptians, the Babylonians, and especially the Gilgamesh version that dates to the second millennium before Christ cannot have been due to Christian missionaries.


Others have proposed that these traditions stem from some local calamity such as the Black Sea Flood. According to this hypothesis, those that experienced this traumatic event spread the stories throughout the world. However traumatic, it seems an unlikely motivation for the hardship and sacrifices required of missionaries. 


Regardless the source behind these traditions, they do point to one thing that skeptics have denied. The universality of these traditions means there had to have been some new worldwide dispersion of mankind within the limits of historical memories. These stories had to have come from common ancestors of all the nations.

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About Us
Christian Leaders & Scholars is the newsletter and publication site of Philip Ernest Williams, author of The Archaeological Evidence of Noah's Flood (2011). The site is also a ministry not only to Christian leaders and scholars but all who are interested in the more difficult issues pertaining to the Bible and its implications for science and history. (Read more)