AIC Notes Issue 2012-22 June 7, 2012
|Canadian Journal of Plant Science|
The Canadian Journal of Plant Science Volume 92, Number 4 (July 2012) is now available online.
It includes two review articles, open access:
Strategies to increase nitrogen use efficiency of spring barley
Yadeta Anbessa, Patricia Juskiw
Microsite characteristics influencing weed seedling recruitment and implications for recruitment modeling
W. John Bullied, Rene C. Van Acker, Paul R. Bullock
Funding Options for AAFC Research
The federal government could possibly address the shortfall in public ag research funding by allowing Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada to keep royalties on discoveries by AAFC scientists.
That's according to the executive director of the Grain Growers of Canada.
"It's clear the government doesn't want to put straight cash into research, or to increase the budget, so we're looking at innovative ways," explains Richard Phillips.
He says one option would be to allow royalty streams to remain in AAFC's budget.
"Ag Canada has a royalty income from all of its inventions, whether its a variety of wheat or something on the animal health side, there are royalties that come back in. So we're looking at adding those royalties onto the base of Ag Canada's research funding," he says. "It's possible that perhaps with no new federal government dollars, if they would allow the royalty stream back onto the budget, perhaps we wouldn't have to ask for any more money for Ag Canada research."
Royalties currently have zero net impact on AAFC's bottom line.
"Right now on paper it comes back into AAFC, but Treasury Board and Finance pull it out the back end, so it's actually a zero-sum game," Phillips explains. "So with all the good discoveries that are made in Ag Canada, the royalties just replace normal government funding that would be coming in."
He admits it could be a tough argument.
"Finance will tell you that all taxpayers paid for that research in the first place, therefore all taxpayers should benefit from it," says Phillips. "So we as agriculture have to make a strong case as to why we'd like to see that changed and have it continue for just agriculture research, but with a growing world populations, no more land available, there are a lot of good reasons to put that money back into ag research."
Kelvin Heppner, Portageonline.com, June 4, 2012
|Single CFIA Safety Model Proposed for all Food Groups |
A proposed new food safety model that would "standardize" Canada's approach to federal food inspection across all commodities and products has been laid out for stakeholder comment.
The federal government on Friday released a discussion document proposing a "more effective and efficient food inspection system" that would "standardize requirements and procedures across all food, based on science and risk."
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency, when set up in 1997, brought together and currently operates eight separate inspection programs previously handled through different federal departments with "diverse" approaches: meat, dairy, eggs, seafood, fresh fruits/vegetables, imported/manufactured foods, maple, and "processed products" such as honey.
The multiple inspection regimes, the government said, have led to situations in which "foods of similar risks may be inspected at different frequencies or in different ways."
Also, the eight food programs leave food industries "having to meet multiple and different requirements that are challenging to address."
"Industry will benefit from a more consistent inspection approach across commodities that is adaptable to the size and complexity of their operations," the government said Friday.
"Standardized processes will reduce the duplication and financial burden associated with overlapping requirements."
"Simply put, we want Canadians to have the safest food in the world," Agriculture Minister Gerry Ritz said in CFIA's release. "That is why we are seeking input from consumers, inspectors, food safety experts, industry and everyone who has a role to play in food safety."
The discussion document follows up on "engagement sessions" the CFIA held with its staff, unions, consumer associations and "industry stakeholders" starting in December last year, the government said.
"For (CFIA) employees, there is clearly an appetite for change and an identified need for a common suite of inspection activities with standardized processes," the document says. "For the industry, the model should be flexible, clarifying roles and setting outcome-based requirements."
The new model proposes that industries which import or export food, or operate as manufacturers or processors of food products for trade between provinces, would be required to obtain licenses and registrations to operate.
A given industry would then be held responsible for "designing and implementing preventative control plans for (its) unique operations" and CFIA would then verify that the industry's plans "appropriately prevent, eliminate or reduce hazards to acceptable levels."
"Residual risk," meaning the risk that remains once preventive controls are in place, and considering an industry's compliance history, would determine the level of inspection oversight required from CFIA -- that is, "normal, enhanced or reduced."
The frequency and scope of CFIA inspection activities would also be "adaptable, as required, to the size and complexity of the regulated parties' operation."
The new single compliance and enforcement strategy would be "based on the principle that industry is responsible for producing safe food that complies with regulatory requirements."
Under that model, industry would be held responsible to take action correcting the situation.
Compliance and enforcement activities would be "transparent, predictable and appropriate to the level of non-compliance."
In cases of "critical or repeated" non-compliance, an industry's licenses to operate could then be suspended or revoked.
Stakeholders will be able to submit feedback on the discussion document to CFIA until July 31, the government said.
From that feedback, CFIA would then draft an "improved" inspection approach which would then be refined by way of "continued stakeholder consultation throughout the year."
Country Guide, June 5, 2012
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|Scientists Awarded $3.4M to Help Farmers Reduce Agricultural Greenhouse Gases |
Three University of Saskatchewan projects have been awarded more than $3.4 million over the next five years from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) for research that will help farmers reduce greenhouse gas emissions through improved use of shelterbelts, irrigation and forage production.
Warren Helgason, assistant professor of chemical and biological engineering, is identifying how irrigation and fertilizer use influence emissions of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas released from fertilizer, fossil fuels and livestock manure.
Dan Pennock, professor of soil science, together with colleagues Rich Farrell and Fran Walley, is developing new management options for prairie farmers that balance the need for increased production with the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Part of the study will provide estimates of greenhouse gas emissions associated with forage seed production and look at ways to minimize them.
Ken Van Rees, director of the U of S Centre for Northern Agroforestry and Afforestation, is examining new strategies and shelterbelt designs to maximize benefits to farmers and the environment. He is looking for the most effective ways to sequester carbon using shelterbelts.
Funding for the three projects comes from AAFC's Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Program (AGGP). Together, the projects will create jobs for about 10 graduate students, plus a dozen summer student positions.
Launched in 2011, the AGGP is a five-year, $27-million AAFC initiative focused on developing on-farm greenhouse gas mitigation technologies across Canada.
The StarPhoenix, June 5, 2012
|New Organic Agriculture Research Centre Receives Funding of $13M |
The federal and Quebec governments have announced a financial contribution of $13,132,343 for the creation of a new research centre called the Platform for Innovation in Organic Agriculture. This amount will enable construction of a multi-purpose centre and the acquisition of the machinery and scientific equipment needed for the work that will be carried out at the new research centre. This is expected to revitalize research, development and knowledge transfer in the area of organic crop production.
The Platform, designed by the Research and Development Institute for the Agri-Environment (IRDA), will address the research/development needs expressed by over 30 organizations involved in organic agriculture. The new facility is located in Saint-Bruno-de-Montarville, Montérégie, and will be used for finding solutions to technical or agronomic problems and therefore for improving the competitiveness of Quebec companies operating in this industry sector.
"This is good news for Quebec! The spin-offs from the Platform will be beneficial for the organic sector and will flow over into the other sectors. In fact, applying the research findings from an integrated management perspective and in the area of organic agriculture will also benefit traditional companies that wish to reduce the environmental impact of their activities," indicated Minister Pierre Corbeil.
"By supporting the introduction of the Platform for Innovation in Organic Agriculture, the Quebec government and the Government of Canada are showing the importance they attach to research of public interest and knowledge transfer. The work that will be conducted there will support the organic agriculture industry by accelerating the discovery and implementation of solutions that address the needs of farmers and society," stated Ms. Gisèle Grandbois, IRDA President and CEO.
The IRDA is a non-profit research corporation formed in 1998 by four founding organizations, namely the Quebec Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAPAQ), the Quebec Ministry of Economic Development, Innovation and Export (MDEIE), the Quebec Ministry of Sustainable Development, the Environment and Parks and the Union des producteurs agricoles (UPA).
Teatro Naturale International, June 6, 2012
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|NASA to Measure Soil Moisture from Space |
Researchers from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada will look to the sky over Manitoba this summer for information about the ground beneath them.
They will be part of a global experiment to test methods for monitoring soil moisture from satellite information.
Between June 7 and July 17, NASA is to fly two piloted aircraft several times a week over an area of mixed agriculture and forest from Portage la Prairie to Carman.
The aircraft will carry instruments similar to those onboard a satellite NASA plans to launch in 2014.
The goal is for the satellite to measure surface soil moisture, temperatures and freeze-thaw cycles from space.
The data will be used to create maps that will help producers make informed farming decisions based on changing weather, water and climate conditions.
Agriculture Canada says it is installing 50 temporary soil moisture monitoring stations to provide continuous measurements over the six weeks of the experiment.
Last year, the department installed permanent stations on a number of private farms to help assess the satellite data after the launch.
About 70 field and aircraft crew are expected to participate in the six-week exercise.
Agriculture Canada says southwestern Manitoba was chosen for the project for many reasons. The main one is that there are extremes in soil moisture in the Red River watershed - from drought to flooding.
The area also has a range of crop types, land cover (farmland, wetlands and forests) and soil texture.
The Canadian Press, June 6, 2012
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Canada Should Ban Off-Label Antibiotic Use in Agriculture
Canada should ban off-label use of antibiotics in farm animals because it contributes significantly to antibiotic resistance in humans, states an editorial in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
Off-label use means using antibiotics for purposes other than those indicated on the label.
"Of greatest concern is the promotion of resistance to antibiotics that may currently represent the last resort for treating some highly resistant infections in humans," writes Barbara Sibbald, Deputy Editor, CMAJ.
Other countries and regions are far ahead of Canada in limiting the use of antibiotics in animals. By 2005, the European Union had phased out antibiotics used to enhance growth in livestock and those from classes prescribed for humans. The US Food and Drug Administration has asked food producers to voluntarily stop using antibiotics for nonmedicinal purposes in farm animals.
Some drugs, such as those in classes used as a last defence against vancomycin-resistant pathogens, are used in farm animals.
Canada should stop using antibiotics in food production, support producers who are trying to improve conditions for raising animals, and institute measurement and reporting systems to track usage.
Canadian Medical Association Journal, June 4, 2012
|Canada to Host Global Youth Ag Summit |
4-H Canada celebrates its 100 year anniversary in 2013. Olds College celebrates 100 years and Bayer celebrates 150 years in 2013. To mark these milestone celebrations, 4-H today announced a global Youth Ag-Summit entitled Feeding a Hungry Planet, taking place at the college in Olds, Alberta, in August 2013.
The Youth Ag-Summit will host 120 students, ages 18-25, from around the world to discuss and learn how their generation will overcome the challenges of feeding a growing world population of currently over 7 billion people. Bayer CropScience is the global title sponsor for the week-long event, and is engaging over 20 countries around the world (including China, Costa Rica, Chile, Spain, Australia, Italy, India, Taiwan, Indonesia and USA to date) to sponsor young leaders to attend the event. Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada and the Province of Alberta are also participating in this exclusive global summit.
"4-H has a long-standing tradition of encouraging youth leadership, raising awareness of agriculture and strengthening communities across North America," said Alberta Premier Alison Redford. "The Global Youth Ag-Summit is an example of how Alberta and Canada are continuing to be leaders on the world stage, providing an opportunity for the next generation to share their insights and perspectives about the challenges of feeding our rapidly-growing world population."
"Feeding a hungry planet is a topic that we seriously think about every day as a science-based agriculture company," explains Sandra Peterson, global CEO of Bayer CropScience, a subgroup of Bayer. "Bringing different perspectives, ideas and viewpoints will be vital to help solve this enormous issue. Through our global sponsorship, we are committed to transporting over 120 bright, young, agricultural leaders to the Youth Ag-Summit in Alberta."
"2013 is a big year for 4-H Canada as we celebrate our 100th year as a youth organization with rural roots," said Mike Nowosad, CEO of 4-H Canada. "The Youth Ag-Summit will become part of our living legacy as we position our organization for the next 100 years. These young adults will have the chance of a lifetime to make a lasting contribution to agricultural challenges worldwide."
Last November, the United Nations declared the planet's population surpassed 7 billion people. In less than 40 years, this forecast will see 2 billion more mouths in need of proper nutrition. In order for the next generation to find food solutions for these people, they must first understand the challenges and opportunities their peers are experiencing around the world today. It's clear that no one person, company or nation holds the answers; but through discussion and opportunities to collaborate such as the Youth Ag-Summit, it is hoped that solutions can be realized and acted upon.
To participate in the summit, young adults between the ages of 18-25 will be required to submit a paper discussing the topic - "Feeding a Hungry Planet." The top essays will qualify them to receive an all-expenses paid trip to the Youth Ag-Summit in Olds, Alberta, Canada. The essays will contribute to the foundation of the conference content.
Canada NewsWire, June 1, 2012
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New Entrants, Food Security Top Newfoundland and Labrador Ag Plan
Newfoundland and Labrador has a new agriculture and agri-food strategy.
The province recently released Our Farms, Our Food, Our Future to provide direction to strengthen the province's agriculture industry.
The strategy provides a framework for the next five years and addresses issues like food security, distribution, land development, livestock farming and labour and diversification.
The president of the Newfoundland and Labrador Federation of Agriculture, Eugene Legge, is happy to see its release.
"Anytime the government puts money into agriculture is good," Legge says, giving initiatives like providing money for land for the dairy industry and identifying land suitable for agriculture development as examples of ongoing projects.
He was happy to see issues such as attracting new people to the industry, developing value-added production and addressing food security put front and centre in the strategy.
"Food security is very important," Legge says. "We have about five days of food here. Supermarkets only carry what they need because the delivery system is so efficient, but when the ferries can't sail, you see spots in the supermarket where the shelves are empty. We need to grow this industry so it's food self sufficient."
The action plan to support the construction of a $3.9-million foreign animal disease laboratory was also good news for food security and self sufficiency.
"We will be able to rely on ourselves rather than sending it off the island," Legge says.
Roosevelt Thompson of the Pork Producers Association of Newfoundland and Labrador says most of the concerns facing the industry have been identified in the strategy.
"If this strategy can be accessed by the industry then things like strengthening local production and supporting the development of value-added production and food safety can have a very positive effect on the pork production of the province," he says.
Trudy Kelly Forsythe, FCC Express, June 1, 2012
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|Atlantic Canada Researches Alternative Poultry Feed Sources |
Agriculture Canada and Nova Scotia's Ministry of Agriculture said they would fund research projects across the four provinces in Atlantic Canada -- Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick -- to look into new, more plentiful sources of feed, as well as health initiatives for the poultry and egg industry.
One project being funded seeks to identify "healthy, cost-effective alternatives to traditional feed, such as omega (3)-rich crab meal, canola seeds and cold-pressed canola oil," Agriculture Canada explained in a press release.
The Atlantic Poultry Research Institute will receive C$820,000in funding from the government's Canadian Agricultural Adaptation Program, which is jointly funded by the national and provincial governments.
"The government of Nova Scotia is investing in these projects to support scientific research that will improve the poultry sector's adaptability, competitiveness and innovation," Nova Scotia Minister of Agriculture John MacDonell said.
Six different research projects are being funded. One project aims to identify ways to increase omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants in chickens and eggs. Another seeks to assess ways to improve flock health and reduce disease.
Other research projects being funded include one to develop a new approach to vaccination, and another will look for a way to cut antibiotic use in poultry rearing.
The poultry and egg sector in the Atlantic region is made up of 235 producers and generated C$259 million in cash receipts in 2010.
Allaboutfeed.net, June 5, 2012
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|Good Farmland Lost to Development |
Ontario is losing ground - literally.
Raising concerns about future food and economic security, the first data released from the 2011 Census of Agriculture shows the area farmed in the province fell 4.8% from 2006 to 2011.
That leaves Ontario, the province with the biggest agricultural output as measured by farm cash receipts, with 12.6 million acres in agricultural production, just 5.6% of Ontario's land base.
"It's subdivisions, it's shopping malls, it's roads," said Mark Wales, president of the Ontario Federation of Agriculture who farms near Aylmer.
"We're developing good farmland that in the long run will not be available to grow food, fibre and fuel for the world."
In areas such as Niagara Region and Greater Toronto, people are buying farms and turning them into rural estates, he said.
"A lot of people who want to build a house there are buying the farm, maybe tearing down the old farmhouse, and putting a really nice estate home on it, and they may or may not do anything with the land."
All other provinces except for Nova Scotia also experienced drops over the five years in the area farmed, according to the census.
Though Ontario has less than a quarter of the farmland of either Saskatchewan or Alberta, the combination of soil and climate mean yields on Ontario farmland are often double or more than that of the Prairies. The province also grows the widest range of crops - more than 200 commodities.
Wales said there are several reasons Ontario needs to pay attention to the loss of agricultural land.
For one, the loss of farmland could leave Ontario residents more dependent on imported food.
"If you look at imported products, there's essentially little or no testing of them for anything. They can be grown under any type of condition.
"There's no testing of the water that is used to irrigate them. There's no control over the type of fertilizer or what it is, no controls over the types of pesticides or chemicals that are used. There's no requirement for labour regulations. They don't even have to pay a minimum wage."
The disappearing farmland in Ontario and across Canada comes when the world's population is forecast to top nine billion by 2050.
Canada is expected to be one of only six countries in the world to be a net exporter of food, Wales said.
Then there is the economy.
With the shrunken automotive sector, agriculture, agri-food and agri-business are the biggest job creators.
"There are a lot of good jobs in agriculture . . . high -tech jobs in the industry," Wales said. "It is important in the long run that we not lose any more farmland to development."
John Miner, The London Free Press, June 5, 2012
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|Report: Older Students Lose Interest in Math, Science |
More needs to be done to keep Canadian students interested in math and science, a new report says.
Canadian students do well in national and international math and science tests, but once those courses are no longer compulsory, usually around Grade 10, enrolment drops off dramatically, the Spotlight on Science Learning report says.
"Canadian students demonstrate their competencies in STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) learning. Yet they often seem eager to shed science classes later in high school, and the proportion of students studying STEM in colleges and universities remains flat," the report reads.
Biotechnology firm Amgen Canada and education charity Let's Talk Science released the report, which says Canada needs to do more to keep students interested in math and science to help them find employment.
"Some degree of learning in science, technology, engineering and math will be essential for many jobs that will be in great demand in the coming years," Amgen Canada director of regulatory affairs Karen Burke said.
"As other nations put greater focus on these areas of learning, Canada cannot afford to be left behind."
When students were surveyed, 78% of those between the ages of 12 and 13 said they are interested in science. But that dropped to 58% for students 17-18 years old, the report notes.
"We have learned from attitude surveys that when students are younger they have great interest in science. As they get older, however, science is seen more as 'complicated' and 'difficult,' as one survey said, versus 'fun' or 'inspiring.' Surveys also tell us that as they get older, an increasing number of students not only abandon the idea of STEM-related careers, but fail to see how this education will be relevant at all to any future job," the report says.
The report indicates 11 benchmarks that need to be tracked to ensure Canada is making progress in STEM learning. These include building awareness about the career opportunities available if students study math and science, conducting a curriculum review across Canada, and establishing a national forum to discuss how to take action.
"Quite simply, we need 'science for all.' We need a robust science culture in this country that goes beyond the classroom, one that's evident in a broader interest in, awareness of and involvement with science," the report says.
QMI Agency, June 5, 2012
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New Study Highlights Climate Change, Food Risk 'Hot Spots'
The world's poorest societies may be better able to adapt to food supply threats posed by climate change than their slightly richer peers, says a new study by a University of Guelph professor.
Countries are most at risk in the early stages of development before the benefits of that development kick in, says Evan Fraser, a professor in Guelph's Department of Geography and in the School of Earth and Environment at the University of Leeds.
"It turns out that the very poor and the relatively wealthy are less vulnerable to the effects of drought than the group in the middle," said Fraser, an expert in food production and its relation to social and economic conditions.
His research, published in the journals Food Security and Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, highlights areas at special risk of climate-induced crop failures, including southeast South America and northeast Mediterranean.
"We're finding a real trade-off between adaptation and development," he said.
"That's not to say we should discourage development, but you can't assume that by promoting it, you're also helping people adapt to climate change."
Fraser suggests this counterintuitive result may occur for two reasons. First, development assistance from other countries and NGOs often dries up once a country is no longer classed among the very poorest. Second, moving away from traditional farming practices is costly, and it takes time for new methods to start paying dividends.
For example, switching from pastoral farming to settled agriculture offers many benefits once new techniques like higher-yielding, drought-resistant crops and modern machinery are introduced.
But these practices require money, and it takes time for poor farmers to build up the necessary capital. In the meantime, their land might have been parcelled up into private plots, preventing farmers from responding to drought by moving their herds somewhere with more water.
"There seems to be a dangerous middle ground where the old ways no longer function but the new ways aren't up and running yet, and people are at their most vulnerable," Fraser said.
"If development damages traditional agricultural practices but still leaves people too poor to use capital-based adaptation strategies such as fertilizers, bank loans or higher-yielding breeds of cow, then we see vulnerability rising."
Fraser says policy-makers and NGOs should take these findings into account. "It's not that traditional is always better, but as people move from traditional to modern they lose things; policy-makers need to think about how to help them make the transition."
A longer version of this story originally appeared in Planet Earth Online.
University of Guelph Press Release, June 01, 2012
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IMS, FAO Partner on Sustainability of Global Livestock Supply Chains
The International Meat Secretariat's board of directors on Wednesday approved a partnership between the IMS and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to benchmark and monitor the environmental performance of livestock supply chains globally. The final approval of the partnership, which has been in the works since last fall, was announced at the IMS's 19th World Meat Conference here.
The IMS is one of what ultimately will be 15 partners in the initiative, with equal representation from the private sector, governments and NGOs. The IMS will represent the private sector in the pork, beef and lamb industries. Other international organizations will represent the poultry and egg, dairy, and feed industries.
According to IMS Secretary General Hsin Huang, the three-year agreement will focus first on "trying to establish more detail on what it means to do an environmental assessment," he told Meatingplace.
"The situation now is, in the lack of [a] global set of standards any company can come in and say they have a standard. In the end, nobody wins because everybody's confused and everybody thinks we're trying to take competitive advantage by being the first" to make a claim about sustainability, he said.
Once the partners have reached agreement as what constitutes sustainability and the best avenues for improving sustainability across the animal protein supply chains, a second goal will be to work with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), based in Geneva, Switzerland, to translate the agreed-upon definitions into measurable standards.
Shortening the shadow
The livestock supply chain sustainability program is one part of a larger FAO effort, the Global Agenda of Action in support of sustainable livestock sector development. Through its participation the IMS anticipates helping to shape policies and recommendations given to governments regarding the livestock and meat processing industries, Huang said.
"The IMS has taken this important step to embark on this partnership to prevent a repeat of the process and negative outcome for the meat industry of the FAO 2006 study, "Livestock's Long Shadow," Huang wrote in the organization's October 2011 newsletter. "Together, with the support of all industry participants, IMS will seek to ensure that this analysis is based on the best scientific evidence, recognizes the diversity of production systems around the world, is transparent about the limitations of the analysis, and presents the results in a fair and balanced manner."
The World Wildlife Federation has been working with the beef industry toward similar goals, through its Global Roundtable on Sustainable Beef. The WWF is the first NGO to confirm its participation in the FAO initiative, Huang said.
Lisa M. Keefe, Meatingplace.com, June 7, 2012
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CUSO Volunteer Positions
CUSO International has three placements available for people with experience in agriculture:
Livelihood Specialist, Cameroon
Livelihoods Development Advisor, Cambodia
Horticulture Training Advisor, Guyana
|Standing Committee on Agriculture and Agri-Food|
They met again on June 6 to hear witnesses for their study on the Animal Products Supply Chain (Red meat).
Beef Value Chain Roundtable
Blair Coomber, Government Co-Chair; Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Director General, Multilateral Relations, Policy and Engagement Directorate
Travis Toews, Past-President, Canadian Cattlemen's Association
Pork Value Chain Roundtable
Susie Miller, Government Co-Chair; Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Director General, Sector Development and Analysis Directorate
Florian Possberg, Member; Board of Directors, Canadian Pork Council
Sheep Value Chain Roundtable
John Ross, Government Co-Chair; Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Director, Animal Industry Division
Andrew Gordanier, Industry Co-Chair; Chair, Canadian Sheep Federation
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Canadian Society for BioEngineering (CSBE-SCGAB) Annual Technical Conference, Orillia, Ontario, July 15-18, 2012
Joint Annual Meeting of ADSA - AMPA - ASAS - Canadian Society of Animal Science - WSASAS, Phoenix, Arizona, July 15-19, 2012
Joint Annual Meeting of AIC, the Canadian Society of Agronomy, Certified Crop Advisors and Canadian Society for Horticultural Science, Saskatoon, July 16-19, 2012
5th World Congress of Agronomists and Agrologists, Quebec City, September 17-21, 2012
Growing the Bioeconomy: Social, Environmental and Economic Implications, Banff, Alberta, October 2-5, 2012
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|AIC Notes is a weekly update provided as a service for AIC members. Please do not circulate or post. The content of AIC Notes does not represent official positions, opinions or support of AIC or its members.
Frances Rodenburg, Editor