SkiPost - Where Knowledge and Stories Are Shared

Ask us your skiing questions at
Read Old SkiPost issues at SkiPost Archives 

 August 26, 2010: Volume 11, Number 17

Training Zones

Optimal performance is reached by subjecting the body to specific types of stress in order to elicit specific types of adaptations. Using the Lactate Threshold lactate level or heart-rate, as we have done here, is the most precise way to determine training zones.

Intensity: Level 1. Easy, 2-3mmol/L below LT; 30-50 bpm below LT.
Duration: 30 mins. - 1.5 hours.
Objective: This zone is used for warm-up and cool-down periods. Training at this intensity will promote recovery following glycogen-depleting workouts or high intensity intervals and maintain cardiovascular and muscular adaptations. The primary goal of recovery is to deliver O2 and CHO (carbohydrates) back to the muscles.

: Level 2. Moderate, 1-2 mmol/L below LT; 10-30 bpm below LT. Level 1. Easy, 2-3 mmol/L below LT; 25-50 bpm below LT.
Duration: 30 mins. - 3 hours.
Objective: A moderate intensity is the optimum zone for improving endurance adaptations. An easy intensity delivers the same benefits, but more slowly. Unlike many athletes in bipedal and less-weight bearing sports, most skiers do most of their endurance training at the easier of these two intensities (around 35 bpm below LT). Training in both of the endurance zones improves the ability to deliver more oxygen to the muscle cell and process more energy from aerobic sources. Specific training adaptations include an increase in the size and number of mitochondria, an increase in myoglobin, increased capillarization, and an increased number of aerobic enzymes. Skiers tend to lower the intensity the longer the session. Over two hours = level 1. Under an hour = level 2.

Lactate Threshold
: Level 3. Moderately high, below LT by 5 bpm, or above LT by 5 bpm.
Tempo: 15 to 60 minute continuous effort at 5 bpm below LT.
Interval: 5 to 15 minutes at LT and up to 5 bpm over LT.
Objective: Training at this intensity will raise LT as a percentage of Vo2 max as well as increase Vo2 max.

VO2 Max
Intensity: Level 4. High, 1-2 mmol/L above LT or at a heart rate associated with 95% of Vo2 max.
Duration: 3-5 minute intervals with half-time to equal recovery.
Objective: This is the optimum zone for improving Vo2 max. Training adaptations include an increase in stroke volume, an increase in maximal aerobic capacity and improved lactate buffering capacity - go fast, hurt less = go faster.

Intensive Repetitions
: Level 5. Very high, 2-6 mmol/L above LT.
Duration: Short: 30-60 seconds with complete recovery.
Long: 1-2 minutes with complete recovery.
Objective: Training at this zone generally only occurs for a few weeks prior to a major competitive event and increases anaerobic capacity and buffering ability.

Intensity: Depends on amount of rest taken between and number of repetitions.
Duration: Short. 10-20 seconds generally with full recovery.
Objective: Develops technique and use of dynamic, powerful motions.
American Birkebeiner Video
Garrott Kuzzy @
 Australian Nationals & Hoppet
BY :Garrott Kuzzy
2010 Olympian
CXC Elite Team Member 

August 23, 2010 

Winter greetings from snowy Falls Creek, Australia-home of the
Kangaroo Hoppet Worldloppet Ski Marathon.  Less than a week into my first trip to the Southern Hemisphere, I am beginning to settle into life Down Under at Australia's highest ski resort. 

To say that things in Australia are "backwards" may be a little harsh; perhaps "upside-down" might be a better description.  Why, for example, is the resort town atop the mountain where I am staying called Falls Creek, while the village in the valley below is called Mount Beauty?  I knew that water drains counter-clockwise Down Under, but I had no idea that light switches get flipped down to turn on.  Always.  My favorite example though, is that Australia gets snow in the middle of our summer-and that's the real reason why I am here. 

Kuzzy 189, Sims 190, train
kuzzy sims train
My adventure started a month ago with an invitation from Australian National Team coach, Finn Marsland, to join the Aussie Team for their National Championships and help improve the FIS points at the races.  I get the impression that he was looking for skiers with better points than me, but fortunately for me, I was one of the few international athletes to take him up on the invitation!  Other internationals here for the races include Olympic Gold Medal biathlete Anastasia Kuznetsova, Swiss National Team skier Valerio Leccardi, and the entire Korean Junior National Team. 

Travel to Australia was much easier than expected.  During the 15 hour flight, I caught up on all the latest new releases, including a disappointing Avatar.  Upon arrival, the bus ride from Mt Beauty up to Falls Creek was spectacular.  The bus climbed on the left side of the road through an exotic forest of gum trees-second tallest trees in the world, only to the California Redwoods.  Beyond the gum tree forest, the view extended to the Kiewa Valley, one of Australia's famous wine regions.  The surroundings were so surreal, I almost expected to see blue people to come flying out of the clouds.  Instead, we were the ones who drove into the clouds and into a big snowstorm.  It's been a week since I arrived and the snow is still falling.  The only time the sun peaked through the clouds was during the Australian National Championship last Sunday, August 22. 

The course for the 15km Skate National Championship was challenging-reminiscent of Soldier Hollow in Utah.  The trails included plenty of climbing, open views with few trees, and more altitude than I was expecting.  Fortunately, I used Toko Jetstream to prep some fast skis, helping to compensate for my lack of off-season fitness.  Australian Olympian Ben Sim caught me from 30 seconds back and we worked together for much of the race before I made a few seconds back close to the finish.  In the end, I came in second at the championships, giving Salomon Complete a 1-2 podium. 
Sims 1st,  Kuzzy 2nd
Sims Kuzzy Podium

 Be careful what you wish for.  I came to Australia looking for snow.  It's fallen everyday so far and the forecast is for more snow this week-40cm in the next two days!  That should make great conditions for the Hoppet this Saturday, August 28.  Stay tuned! 
Sterling LeFluoGreen
Sterling LeFluoGreen


Our latest invention, two interchangeable and washable micropourous padding, with and without a protective net let you manage the flow through ventilation based on your preferences and environmental conditions.



The IN-MOLD technology is used to inject Styrofoam into the mold containing the cap in polycarbonate at a very high pressure. This forms a seamless rigid structure more impact resistant and lighter than any other helmet produced.



The latest development in Rudy Project technology: a toothed disc with reinforced runners, special protective wings and a rear panel with diagonal holes for fixing straps. Precise micrometric regulation and height adjustment provide a perfect, personal fit and excellent stability.



Thanks to the scientific positioning of the external air openings and the unique air channel designs carved inside the hard shell, our helmets are extremely ventilated and very comfortable to wear.

Featured Article 
The National Cross Country Ski Education Foundation  (NCCSEF) promotes the development of U. S. cross-country ski racing through its support of activities that challenge and enable athletes to achieve higher competitive goals and of efforts that will lead to success in international competitions.

The not for profit organization NCCSEF is celebrating 12 years of supporting U.S. skiing. We have granted over $175,000 in NCCSEF Future Funds over this period.  In fact, we've funded every World Junior Championship team since 1997 and every J1 Scando Cup team since it was initiated in 1999. Now, as we gear up for skiing beyond 2010 there is much more work to be done and your help is needed! Find out how you can help at

Do you want to be a part of this?

Click to discover more.
New Zealand Camp
New Zealand Camp
$13,000 in prize money at Boulder Mountain Tour 
The SWIX Boulder Mountain Tour along with the Sun Valley Nordic Festival has secured with the help of the City of Sun Valley, Idaho a substantial prize money package. The nearly $13,000 in prize money will be paid to the top ten places in the men's and women's races for the 2011 SWIX Boulder Mountain Tour as well as the second annual Thursday night co-ed sprint relays in downtown Ketchum, Idaho.
The always popular SWIX Boulder Mountain Tour is the centerpiece of the nine-day Sun Valley Nordic Festival highlighting the fantastic Nordic skiing opportunities in the Ketchum / Sun Valley area. This year the BMT will feature a Half Boulder of 15km as well as an expanded field for the elite skiers. There is still a maximum cap on the total number of elite wave skiers of one hundred men and one hundred women. 
The Sun Valley Nordic Festival will run from Saturday January 29th through Sunday February 6th with the SWIX Boulder Mountain Tour being staged on the 5th. & 
 Nordic Job Openings

Devil's Thumb Ranch, north of Winter Park, CO is currently accepting applications for Nordic Instructors for the winter season.  Instructors will teach Nordic classic and skate lessons to groups and individuals.  They will also ensure a high level of guest service within the Activities center by assisting with rental fittings, retail sales, and providing knowledge about services offered throughout the Ranch.  Prior Nordic instructing experience required.  Retail sales and customer service experience preferred.  FULL TIME SEASONAL to begin Nov 1st.  $10-13/hr plus lesson rate and tips. Please apply at


About SkiPost

Cross-Country skiing's community lodge. Where knowledge and stories are shared. The goal of SkiPost is to make the sport of Cross-Country skiing easier and more enjoyable for all who choose to participate. If you have questions on Cross-Country Skiing see or email us at

Enjoy Winter,
Andrew Gerlach
Director/Editor- SkiPost

Featured Article Newell
Featured Article
SkiErg by Concept 2
Featured Article
RudyRX at SkiPost Discount
Featured Article
find the time
Featured Article
Featured Article
Rudy Helmets Direct
    Salomon Nordic on Facebook
Featured Article
     Salomon Nordic on Facebook
Featured Article
Rudy Lenses and Helmet Offers