ASQ-LA Quality News
ASQ LA SECTION 0700
August 2012
In This Issue
August 8th MEMBER MEETING
Message from the Chair
New Members
CSUDH Class Schedule
CERTIFICATION EXAMS
ASQLA Leadership Team
CSUDH Term Paper
Greetings!

 

Welcome to the August Issue of the ASQ-LA Newsletter.

Looking forward to see you at our August 8th Member Meeting @ Mattel in El Segundo. If you plan to attend the meeting, YOU MUST RSVP to Chen Low 310-334-7044, pager 310-353-8293 or e-mail ChenLow_88@hotmail.com, no-later-than Noon on Monday, August 6th, so he can get the list of attendees to Mattel Security.
 
Looking forward to your attendance at this month's program.
 
Harold Martinez
Newsletter Chair
ASQLA
 

 

ASQLA MEMBER MEETING - August 8, 2012
 
Dr. Rick Hefner

 

"Leading Change Without Authority" 

Please join the ASQLA Section 0700 for its monthly member meeting on Wednesday, August 8th. The meeting will be at Mattel in El Segundo. This meeting is an opportunity to network with other Quality professionals and to learn about current techniques & technologies. Our speaker this month is Dr. Rick Hefner.

 

The speaker's topic will be "Leading Change Without Authority ."  When an organization needs to change (for example, adopting a new quality standard), the change initiative is often assigned to a change agent. Leading the change can be difficult if that change agent does not have any direct authority over the people whose behavior needs to change have not bought in, and they do not see the benefit in changing.

 

This presentation will provide practical approaches, tools, and techniques for introducing and sustaining change in your organization. Successful change requires the right combination of strategy, structure, and support. Your chances of success depend on your current culture, the desired end state, the resources available, and the past response to change. Special attention will be paid to influencing change without direct authority. This workshop will be useful to anyone looking to jump-start improvement, or revitalize a failing initiative.

 

Dr. Rick Hefner has over 30 years of experience in change management, and has successfully led improvement effort in over 20 different organizations. He has over 80 publications and conference presentations, and is an SEI-authorized Instructor and certified High Maturity Lead Appraiser for the CMMI quality standard, an ISO auditor, and a Lean Six Sigma Black Belt. Dr. Hefner currently serves as the Director of Process Assurance at Northrop Grumman.  

 

The program will be located at the 2nd Floor Main Conference Room at Mattel in El Segundo. This meeting is an opportunity to network with other Quality Professionals, learn about quality related topics and earn 0.3 Recertification Units. Registration and networking starts at 5:30 PM. The meeting runs from 6:00 to 7:30 PM. Crackers, Cookies, Coffee & Water will be provided at no charge. You MUST RSVP to Chen Low 310-334-7044 or pager 310-353-8293 or e-mail address to ChenLow_88@hotmail.com,  no later than Noon on Monday, August 6th, so a list of attendees for Mattel Security.

 

 

 

Message from the Chair - Lane Parrott

 

Have you ever wondered why there is no ASQ Meeting in July? I wondered too. According to more senior members, many people take vacation during the first two weeks of July, so it is a difficult time to schedule a meeting. Rather than have a poorly attended meeting, we decided to have summer fun and go see a Dodger Game. For over 40 years a group of Section 0700 members have attended a Dodgers game in July. This year's event will be unique, because it is Dodger Stadium 50th Anniversary and it will be on Friday, July 13th.

 

The ASQ fiscal year ends on June 30th.Traditionally, the Leadership Team meets to review our previous year's performance and establish goals for the upcoming year. Like most organizations our section/unit goals must support the organizations' objectives. ASQ objectives are the following:

  • Increase Impact
    • Support global transformation initiative
    • Support Social Responsibility movement
  • Grow Membership
    • Grow number of organizations served
    • Grow number of members engaged in member unit activities
    • Grow the number of renewing members
  • Increase Customer Loyalty
    • Improve member retention
    • Enhance the value of the Quality BoK through strategic use
  • Grow means
    • Increase professional certifications
    • Increase use of ASQ training
  • Process Performance
    • Use technology to enable information sharing
    • Improve performance using Baldrige criteria or other methodology
  • People
    • Increase Member Leader satisfaction
    • Increase Member satisfaction
    • Increase number of Member Leaders participating in leadership training

During our Leadership Team Meeting on July 11th we will establish tactical goals for our section, which will support the above ASQ Objectives. I look forward to sharing our goals with you on our website.

Have a fantastic summer. I hope to see you at our next meeting.

 

Lane Parrott

Section 0700 Chair
LaneP@phenomenex.com
310-489-9018

 

 For information on placing an ad through ASQLA, contact Advertising Chair at (310)383-2393, awang@spectrumchemical.com.

 

 

 

Membership Chair Report

By Lisa Uhrig

THE LOS ANGELES SECTION THANKS THE FOLLOWING NEW MEMBERS FROM

 MAY AND JUNE

FULLNAMECOMPANY
Christina Yang Gen Probe
Kenneth McNiff K-1 Packaging Group
Kathleen A. Laing Northrop Grumman
Brian L. Meyers J P L
Syed Hasnain H. Rizvi Avancee Corporation
Douglas DaviesAlcoa Fastening Systems
Eduardo PonceLisi Aerospace Company
Howard J. KwonEaton
Richard BoroughNorthrop Grumman
Joshua Walter Barry 
William ShennumFive Acres
David Scott Randall 
David P. McKelvey 
Leonard K. Grant 
Lynne KunsterMarvin Engineering Co., Inc.
Mr. Mario T. Marcelo
City of Hope
Dr. Richard S. Rominger Monsanto Vegetable Seeds
Ms. Jennifer K. Klein Scitor Corporation
Hung Chau Bodycote Thermal Processing
Karl S. Thurm 
Mr. Brent Di MeoNational Genetics Institute
Belinda Din 
Kelly EckJohnson & Johnson
Yi Gao 
Carlos M. MonroyAstro Pak
Fenil Dinesh Savla 
Ricardo RomeroPermaswage
Allen JeterModcloth
Nicole Bowden Jenkins 
Fei Li LiUSC
 
 

California State University, Dominguez Hills
 

BSQA and MSQA

FALL 2012
- Internet Program Schedule - Subject to Occasional Changes
  

                                                First Day              Last Day                     Last Day 

                                                of Class             To Register                   of Class

                                                Sept. 4                 Aug. 31                       Dec. 4

Course                          Title                                                              Instructor

                                BSQA

QAS 200.41          Fundamentals of Quality (3 units)                 David Vu (dvu@csudh.edu)

QAS 220.41          Introduction to Measurement Science          Emil Hazarian ((ehazarian@csudh.edu)

QAS 330.41          Statistical Quality Control and Inspection     Dan Dunahay (ddunahay@csudh.edu)

QAS 331.41          Manufacturing Processes (3 units)                Craig Carpenter (CCarpenter@polkaudio.com)

QAS 335.41          Quality Auditing (3 units)                             David Vu (dvu@csudh.edu)

QAS 347.41          Dimensional Metrology (3 units)                  Emil Hazarian (ehazarian@csudh.edu)

QAS 427.41          Quality Improvement (3 units)                     Minoo Hosseini (mhosseini@csudh.edu)

QAS 499.41          Senior Project (3 units)                                Robert Spencer (rspencer@csudh.edu)

                                MSQA

QAS 510.41          Advance Probability/Statistic (3 units)         John Miller (jamiller@csudh.edu)

QAS 511.41          Quality Function Management & TQM       William Trappen (btrappen@csudh.edu)

QAS 511.42          Quality Function Management & TQM       Bhavan (Bob) Mehta (bmehta@csudh.edu)

QAS 513.41          Sta Quality Control Samplg (3 units)           Dan Dunahay (ddunahay@csudh.edu)

QAS 514.41          Advanced Experimental Design (3 units)     Dan Dunahay (ddunahay@csudh.edu)

QAS 515.41          Human Factors in Quality Assurance           Jim Clauson (jclauson@csudh.edu)

QAS 518.41          Quality Project Management                      William Trappen (btrappen@csudh.edu)

QAS 523.41          Software Reliability (3 units)                       Catherine French (cfrench@csudh.edu)

QAS 525.41          ISO 9000 and Audit Function (3 units)        Robert Spencer (rspencer@csudh.edu)

QAS 531.41          Customer Satisfaction & Quality Assurance Robert Spencer (rspencer@csudh.edu                         

QAS 538.41          "Evaluation and Outcome                           Bhavan (Bob) Mehta (bmehta@csudh.edu)

                                Analysis for Healthcare Delivery" (3 units)

QAS 598.41          Directed Research (3 units)                         Milton Krivokuca (mkrivokuca@csudh.edu)

QAS 599.41          Thesis/Project (3 units)                               Milton Krivokuca (mkrivokuca@csudh.edu)               

To enroll contact the Extended Education Registration office, please call (310) 243-3741, fax (310) 516-3971, or by email at eereg@csudh.edu.

                                                First Day                       Last Day                   Last Day

                                                of Class                       To Register                of Class

                                                Oct. 9                          Oct. 5                          Dec. 4

Course                   Title                                                                Instructor

QAS 495.41          Mathematics for Quality Assurance             John Miller (jamiller@csudh.edu)

 

____________________________________________________________________________________________

 

ASQ Certification Refresher Courses - Internet Program Schedule

Subject to Occasional Changes

FALL 2012

                                               

Course            Title                                                                Instructor

 

NBQA 701.41      Certified Quality Management/Organizational        Milt Krivokuca (mkrivokuca@csudh.edu)

NBQA 704.41      Certified Reliability Engineering Exam Prep.          Michael Falk (michael.d.falk@kp.org)

 

NBQA 702.41      Certified Quality Engineer Exam Prep.      Catherine French (cfrench@csudh.edu)

NBQA 703.41      Certified Quality Auditor Exam Prep.         Milt Krivokuca (mkrivokuca@csudh.edu)

NBQA 705.41      Certified Software Quality Engineer Exam Prep.    Catherine French (faxcntn@cox.net)

NBQA 709.41      Certified Calibration Technician                  Milt Krivokuca (mkrivokuca@csudh.edu)

                                Engineer Exam Prep.

 

To reach the Extended Education Registration office please call (310) 243-3741, fax (310) 516-3971, or by email at eereg@csudh.edu. .

 

For On-Site or On-Campus NBQA 701, NBQA 702, NBQA 703, and NBQA 706 Please contact the MSQA program.

 
 

ASQ Certification Exams

 

Application Deadline

October 12, 2012

 

Late Application

Fee ($50) Deadline

October 17, 2012

 

Exam Date

December 1, 2012

 

Certifications

 

Quality Engineer(CQE)

Quality Auditor(CQA)

Six Sigma Green Belt (SSGB)

Software Quality Eng. (CSQE)

Quality Improvement Assoc (CQIA)

Calibration Technician(CCT)

Quality Process Analyst (CQPA)

 

Application Deadline

August 17, 2012

 

Late Application

Fee ($50) Deadline

August 22, 2012

 

Exam Date

October 6, 2012

 

Certifications   

 

Six Sigma Black Belt(SSBB)

Mgr of Qual/Org Excel (CMQ/OE)

Quality Inspector(CQI)

Quality Technician(CQT)

Biomedical Auditor(CBD)

Reliability Engineer(CRE)

HACCP Auditor(CHA)

 

 CALL ASQ HEADQUARTERS:

800-248-1946

or

www.asq.org

for more information.

 

Cal State Dominguez Hills BSQA & MSQA Programs

sponsor certification preparation courses, See certification

page on www.asqla.org.

 

Is it time for recertification?

Send your package to Joe DeSimone,

Recertification Chair at

P.O. Box 1291, San Pedro, CA90731.


 

ASQ LA LEADERSHIP TEAM

MEETING SCHEDULE

Time: 5:30 - 6:00 Networking & Dinner

6:00 - 8:00 Meeting

Location:

CSUDH Extended Education Bldg

1000 Victoria St., Carson, CA 90745

Contact: Lane Parrott, Chair

(310) 489-9018

laneP@phenomenex.com,

Dates: 1st Wednesday of the Month

_______________________________________________________________ 

  

2011-12

Officers & Committee Chairs of ASQ Los Angeles Section 700

www.asqla.org

 

CHAIR: Lane Parrott - (310) 489-9018 - laneP@phenomenex.com

VICE CHAIR: Andrea Reilly - 310-617-6764 - andreareilly6@aol.com

SECRETARY: Catherine Martin - 310-616-0936 Catherine_Martin@raytheon.com

TREASURER: Jim Morrison -(310) 541-1417 - jamamorr@aol.com

PAST CHAIR/Executive Advisory: Chen Low - (310) 334-7044 - chenlow_88@hotmail.com
Arrangements:  Chen Low - (310) 334-7044 - chenlow_88@hotmail.com

 Job Listing: Armen Yeghoian- 818-912-9272 - Armen2049@yahoo.com

Website Chair: Crystalyn Nield- (310)462.1150- Crystalyn@wcfb.cc

Membership: Lisa Uhrig - - 310-283-1197 lisa@uhrigconsulting.com

 Education: Bill Trappen - (760)723-7718 -tankerwht@aol.com

CSUDH Liaison: Milt Krivokuca - (949) 892-7994 - Milt619@cox.net

Certification: Joe DeSimone - (424) 772-6371 -jrdesimone@msn.com

Re-certification: Joe DeSimone - (424) 772-6371 - jrdesimone@msn.com

Newsletter: Harold Martinez - (310) 214-1606 -martinez2004@verizon.net

Awards and Recognition: Imre Fischer -(949)493-3914 - imrefische@aol.com

Quality Management Process (QMP): Crystalyn Nield- (310)462.1150- Crystalyn@wcfb.cc

Financial Audit: Michael Schaffer - (310)895-0802  michaels@psychemedics.com

Simon Collier Quality Award:  Imre Fischer - (949) 493-3914 ImreFische@aol.com

    Programs: Andrea Reilly - 310-617-6764 - andreareilly6@aol.com

Publicity & Advertising Chair: : Alan Wang - (310)383-2393 - awang@spectrumchemical.com 

 Editor's Note: The following is a term paper written by an MSQA Student at CSU Dominguez Hills. A special Thanks to Bill Trappen for allowing ASQ-LA to publish the article in this month's newsletter.  

 

Great Minds Don't Always Think Alike

Charity C Hall

QAS 511

Professor Trappen

26 July, 2011 

 

The world of healthcare in America today is a dynamic and fluid phenomenon. Change is inevitable, and quality improvement is a sector within healthcare that will see continual growth. With a diversified, large healthcare team with multiple personnel involved at both direct patient care and administrative levels, teamwork is a key component in initiating change and quality improvement processes within a healthcare organization. This paper will define quality improvement and its importance, and describe the process of change and the correlating significance of teamwork.           

To define quality improvement, quality must first be defined. The term quality itself is multidimensional, described as "an unusually slippery concept, easy to visualize and yet exasperatingly difficult to define"(Garvin, 1988, p. xi).A more traditional definition is provided by Philip Crosby (as cited in Johnson & Foley, 2003, p. 41), author and founder of Philip Crosby Associates, who spoke of quality as "conformance to requirements," and a performance standard of "zero defects." Defined in Merriam-Webster dictionary, quality is "a degree of excellence" or "superiority in kind." Authors Johnson and Foley (2003), point out that if quality is excellence, who determines what is excellent? It has thus been concluded that quality and excellence are based on the customer and what the customer desires and expects. As defined by Evans and Lindsay (2011), quality is "meeting or exceeding customer expectations" (p. 17).            

The individual customer's definition of quality is influenced by their perspective. There are judgmental, product-based, user-based, value-based, and manufacturing-based perspectives (Evans & Lindsay, 2011, p. 3). Most of these perspectives are self-explanatory, so user-based, product-based and manufacturing based perspectives will only briefly be defined here for the purposes of this discussion, as these terms will be mentioned again further on. A user-based perspective defines quality as providing the customer with what they want. A value-based perspective defines quality as giving the customer what they want at a competitive price. A manufacturing-based perspective focuses on providing the customer with a product developed according to certain specifications with reliability and consistency (Evans & Lindsay, 2011, p. 13).           

With a foundational understanding of quality, quality improvement may now be defined. According to Juran (2001), a known quality Guru, improvement in this sense means "the organized creation of beneficial change; the attainment of unprecedented levels of performance" (p. 5.3). Juran (1998) identified that quality improvement is essential and "a permanent fact of life," claiming that "competition in quality has intensified" and the necessary reaction is to steadily increase quality improvement processes (p. 5.7).            

This is particularly essential as it relates to healthcare, as competition in quality has unquestionably intensified in this arena over recent years. Dr. Reinertsen acknowledges that "Quality and safety are major foci in health care today" (cited in Feldman, 2006, p. 145). These are identified as important on an individual basis, say for the professional nurse or doctor, but also strategically important for entire health care institutions.Quality Assurance (QA) was the term previously used to identify the quality improvement process, indicating a focus on the outcome of individuals. Today the term Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) is preferred as it places more focus on processes and systems of care as a whole. It emphasizes a multidisciplinary action plan with a focus on all aspects of patient care (Feldman, 2008). Feldman (2008) goes on to note that this forces health care institutions to "constantly evaluate and revise processes to better meet the needs of patients and stakeholders" (p. 145). Whether the term QA or CQI is used, the goal of both is to improve patient care and outcomes. Current and future trends indicate that further CQI is in order. One indicative example is the pay for performance and reporting systems that are currently in place and required of all healthcare institutions (Feldman, 2008). Pay for performance (P4P) programs have been established as a means of providing so called "incentives" to health care providers to ensure certain quality targets are met. Institutions are also now mandated to report certain information to both accrediting bodies and the general public, such as patient outcomes related to core measures in certain scenario based situations, for example the outcome of a patient who experienced a heart attack. According to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (2006), this is "a strategy to improve health care delivery that relies on the use of market or purchaser power." This tactic in improving patient safety and quality in healthcare will propel physicians and health care institutions towards a further focus on CQI.            

 Initially, quality management efforts within healthcare were focused solely on the quality of a product. For years, modern medicine focused on outcome-based quality, as defined by the medical experts (Endres & Godfrey, 1994). This product based quality, with an emphasis on inspection, drove organizations to develop and incorporate what may be perceived by some as "elaborate" quality assurance procedures in order to review the outcomes and "assign responsibility for less-than-perfect outcomes" (Godfrey, 2001, p. 14.14). A product quality emphasis continues today, with recent clinical outcome research as an example. Researchers have expanded the more traditional definition of outcome to include more specific outcome markers, such as the patients' pain management, performance of ADLs (Activities of daily living), and ability to work (Godfrey, 2001).           

With an increasingly educated and informed patient population, with data regarding the quality of healthcare at the public's fingertips via the internet, the media, and word of mouth, emerges a correlating increase in the expectation of quality health care. Healthcare improvements are now "widely publicized" and "expectations are high" amongst the public (Evans & Lindsay, 2011, p. 16). According to Evans and Lindsay (2011), these patient's perceptions of quality healthcare are product and user-based (previously defined above) perceptions. A manufacturing-based focus is also essential in rendering quality care as quality care expectations continue to raise. In translation, this means that health care organizations and professionals' goals should be focused on providing customers or patients with what they want, according to certain specifications with reliability and consistency, and at a competitive price!            

Many different change processes or formulas exist. One change process described by Feldman (2008) involves four stages: visioning, planning, implementing, reviewing and learning. Regardless of the process or formula used, researchers and "quality gurus" seem to agree on the importance of integrating a team approach throughout the entire process. In a multidisciplinary field such as healthcare, where a multidisciplinary focus is placed on CQI, it only makes sense that teamwork be emphasized when initiating change. Furthermore, according to Juran (1998), most important projects are multifunctional in nature. Juran argues that improvement, especially for multifunctional problems, requires the incorporation of teams. "Experience has shown that the most effective organizational mechanisms for dealing with such multifunctional problems are multifunctional teams" (Juran, 1998, p. 5.32). Few people enjoy or embrace change; creating an attitude or culture of teamwork during this unpleasant process may eliminate potential barriers along the way. Author David Hutton (2000) recognizes that the individuals who are involved during each stage of the change process will respond differently, and in a positive manner, if they are provided the opportunity to "make this process their own" instead of being "herded through someone else's process" (p. 29). Hutton (2000) argues that if the participant is allowed to feel a part of the process rather than being directed through it they will develop a sense of ownership over the project and will "support and protect it as their own creation" (p. 29). Hutton also points out that an individual who feels pride and ownership in something will be more willing to work hard and overcome barriers that may be encountered during the project. An important aspect of a team approach is that each participant has clearly defined roles and responsibilities (Hutton, 2000). This may also work to the advantage of the team, eliminating potential obstacles created by unidentified roles. One of these essential roles is a process group leader, also known as a change agent. This may be at a management or non-management level, but at either level should maintain the role of leader. According to Dr. Deming (2003), an educated statistician and management expert, "the job of management is not supervision, but leadership" (as cited in Covey, p. 263). He goes on to emphasis the importance of demonstrated leadership at all levels as it will prove vital to the success of the change project. "Embedding total quality management in an organization involves culture change to a new set of beliefs, values and behavior patterns" (Lal, 2008, p. 172). It is critical that the team leaders lead by example, as they are restructuring crucial processes within an organization and to a certain degree re-shaping people's minds. While this role of leader is crucial, it is important to note that the goal of this role is to "facilitate rather than force change" (Feldman, 2008, p. 103). An effective team leader will be known as a "bridger in networks" who seeks to "weave people together" (Feldman, 2008, p. 103). A team leader should be open to the criticism of other team members' ideas and be respectful of their individual differences. The team leader should also prove trustworthy, reliable, honest, competent and credible, while at the same time maintaining effective listening skills (Feldman, 2008). Not only has a team approach been endorsed by researchers, but it is also recognized in well known methods such as Hoshin Planning and the Six Sigma approach. The Hoshin Planning Process is a strategic method which was developed in Japan in the 1950's. Its methodology stems from the total quality management philosophy. As a management planning tool, its overture was designed to eliminate the traditional top to bottom approach. The premise of the Hoshin Plan is the involvement of all employees ensuring their understanding of the process objectives. The idea is that at every organizational level "people provide input and agree to the goals that they are prepared to accept in support of the overall plan" (Hutton, 2000, p. 238). This method according to Hutton (2000) provides "closed loop improvement cycles" throughout the process (p. 51). The term six sigma refers to a "particular goal of reducing defects to near zero" (Pande, 2002, p. 4). The six sigma mission it to "reduce variation to achieve very small standard deviations so that almost all of your products or services meet or exceed customer expectations" (Pande, 2002, p. 4). This approach is used among healthcare institutions as a means of quantifying outcome data. For example, hospitals used the six sigma approach to determine the average number of hospital acquired infections (Pande, 2002). Six "critical ingredients" are identified in order to reach the six sigma status. Improvement and process focus are included in these key ingredients, with a team approach identified as a critical element. According to Pande (2002), "improvement and design teams are the time machines that foreshadow the future of the organization and the way it will operate at a six sigma level" (p. 21). Pande (2002) also identifies that teams alone cannot change structure, instead multidimensional involvement is necessary.Constant evaluation must be made of consumer satisfaction in order to make improvement, as quality-based success is determined exclusively by the customer's level of gratification. After examining the individual components that fashion true customer care, it is safe to conclude that teamwork is absolutely necessary for building a progressive foundation in the healthcare industry; however, patient care cannot be improved upon without the vision of a predesignated leader and the commitment of a qualified staff.           

 

 References

Covey, S. R. (2003). Principle-centered leadership. New York, NY: Simon & Shuster Inc.

Endres, A. C., Juran J. M., & Godfrey A. B. (2001). Total quality management. Blacklick, OH: McGraw-Hill Professional Book Group.

Evans, J. R., & Lindsay, W. M. (2001). Managing for quality and performance excellence. 4th ed. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.

Feldman H. R. (2008). Nursing leadership: A concise encyclopedia. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Garvin D. (1988). Managing quality: The strategic and competitive edge. New York, NY: Simon and Shuster Inc.

Hutton, D. W. (2000). From baldrige to the bottom line. Milwaukee, WI: Quality Press.

Johnson, J. & Foley, B. (2003). Understanding quality. 4th ed. Burlington, MA: Pergamon Flexible Learning.

Juran, J. M. (1998). Quality improvement process. Blacklick, OH: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing Book Group.

Juran, J. M. (2001). Total quality management. Blacklick, OH: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing Book Group.

Lal, H. (2008). Organizational excellence through total quality management. Daryaganj, Delhi, IND: New Age International.

Pande, P. S., Neuman, R. P., & Cavanagh, R. R. (2001). The six sigma way team fieldbook: An implementation guide for process improvement teams. Blacklick, OH: McGraw-Hill Trade.

Pay for Performance (P4P): AHRQ Resources. March 2006. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/pay4per.htm

Quality. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-

webster.com/dictionary/quality